Ship Building Industry
Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakhapatnam was set up by M/s Scindia Steam Navegation Co. in 1941, Cochin Shipyard Ltd., Kochi was incorporated by government in 1972, is the largest, Hoogly Dock and Port Engineers Ltd., Kolkata become public sector undertaking in 1984 and the Mazgoan Dock at Mumbai are the main builders.
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) at Bengaluru is the leading producer. It has its divisions at Nashik, Koraput (Odisha), Hyderabad, Telangana, Korwa, Kanpur, Lucknow (U.P.).
At present there are about 13 units manufacturing complete cycles and cover 40 units manufacturing cycle parts. The main centres of bicycle production are Mumbai, Asansol, Sonipat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana.
Automobile industry includes a large variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks and buses, jeeps, three wheelers and two wheelers. Cars are manufactured at Mumbai (Fiat), Kolkata (Ambassador), Gurgaon (Maruti Suzuki) and NOIDA (Hyundai and Honda). Trucks and buses are manufactured at Mumbai, Pune and Gurgaon. Three wheelers and two wheelers are manufactured at Pune, Mumbai, Chennai, Faridabad, Mysore, Ludhiana and Tirupati.
Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are the main centres of tractor manufacturing.
Chemical and Allied Industries
Sulphuric Acid is produced at Mumbai, Trombay, Chennai, Kalyan, Jamshedpur, Delhi, Kolkata, Burnpur, Udaipur, Alwaye (Kerala), Debari and Khetri; Important centres for the production of Soda Ash are Okha, Mithapur, Dhrargadhra, Sutrapada, Varnasi, Nangal and Tulicorn. Major centres for producing Caustic Soda are Porbander, ane, Kalyan, Mithapur and Titagarh.
Petrochemicals are those chemicals and compounds which are derived from petroleum resources. These organisatons are working in the petrochemical sector under the administrative control of the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals.
Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL)
It is a public sector undertaking which is responsible for the manufacture and distribution of various petrochemicals like polymers, chemicals, breeds and breed intermediates. It has naptha-based plants at Vadodara (Gujarat), Nagothane (Maharashtra) and gas-based complex at Dahej (Gujarat). It started production of polyster in 2005. The polyster units are at Hoshiarpur (Punjab), Nagpur (Maharashtra), Allahabad and Barabanki (U.P.), Baulpur (Odisha) and Silvassa (Gujarat).
Petrols Cooperative Limited (PCL) is a joint venture company of the Government of India and Weavers cooperative societies. It produces polyester lament yarn and nylon lament yarn at its two plants located at Vodadara and Naldhari in Gujarat. Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET) is involved in imparting training.
First super-phosphate factory was set up in 1906 at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu. Of the three major fertilizers viz. Nitrogenous, Phosphatic and Potassic, (NPK), nitrogenous fertilizers are the most important. This industry has made rapid strides due to heavy demand for increasing the farm production to feed the teeming millions. The setting up of the Sindri plant by the Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd. (FCI) in 1951 was a turning point and this industry did not look back after that. There are 57 fertilizer units manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous and complex fertilizers, including 29 units producing urea and 9 units producing ammonia sulphate as a by-product. Besides, there are about 64 medium and small scale units producing single superphosphate. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala are the main fertilizer producing states and account for about half of the total fertilizers produced in India. Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka are the other producers.
Some of the important public sector undertaking are the Fertilizer Corporation of India; e Fertilizers and Chemical Travancore Ltd; The National Fertilizers Ltd; The Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd; e Hindustan Fertili zers Corporation Ltd., The Madras Fertilizers Ltd (joint venture of Govt. of India and the National Iranian Oil Company). Pyrites, Phosphates and Chemicals Ltd; Paradeep Phosphates Ltd. and Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation Ltd.
Major players in cooperative sector are Indian Farmers Fertilizer Corporation (IFFCO) and Krishak Bharati Cooperative Ltd (KRIBHCO).
It is an important infrastructure industry and is indispensible for construction of buildings. It uses heavy, low value and weight loosing materials and is a raw material oriented industry. Limestone is the main raw material which comprises 60-65% of the total product. Following are the main producers.
- Madhya Pradesh: Jabalpur, Gwalior, Satna, Katni, Kaymore
- Chhattisgarh: Durg, Raipur, Mandher, Jamul
- Andhra Pradesh: Peddapalli, Krishna, Camentnagar, Vijaywada, Vishakhapatnam, Viziangram, Nadikundi, Telangana, Karimnagar, Adilabad
- Rajasthan: Sawai Madhopur, Lakheri, Chittaurgarh, Udaipur, Sirohi, Bundi, Nimbahera
- Gujarat: Sika, Sevalia, Okha, Porbandar, Dwarka, Vadodara
- Tamil Nadu: Talaiyuther, Alangulom, Tulukapatti, Dalmiapuram, Poliyar, Sonkeridurg, Merddakari
- Karnataka: Bagalkot, Bhadravati, Shahabad, Bengaluru, Tunkur, Wadi, Kurkunta
- Chhattisgarh: Durg and Raipur
The other producers are Bihar (Dalmia Nagar, Sindri, Japla, Chopan, Chaibasa, Khalari, Kalyanpur, Banjari), Uttar Pradesh (Dalla, Churk, Chunar), Maharashtra (Chandrapur, Ratnagiri, Saweri, Mumbai, Battam, Kolhapur), Haryana (Charkhi Dadri, Bhupendra), Odisha (Rajgangpur, Bargarh), Himachal Pradesh (Rajban and Gogal), J and K (Wuyon and Srinagar), Assam (Bakajan, Guwahati), West Bengal (Durgapur, Purulia, Madhukunda), Meghalaya (Siju).
Written by princy