Discuss why India needs a cross border flood management mechanism. Also state the major issues in cross border flood management and suggest remedial measures in this context.
India frequently experiences floods in areas like Bihar and Assam. It causes heavy damage to both life and property.
Need for cross-border flood management:
- Many rivers of India originate from China like the Brahmaputra, and from Nepal like Kosi and other left bank tributaries of Ganga, etc.
- The frequency of occurrence of these floods is quite high and the risk is increasing with climate change.
- There is absence of a clear mechanism to deal with such flooding events.
- It causes damage to the topsoil of the region by erosion as it is subjected to periodic flooding.
Major issues in cross-border flood management:
- Lack of agreement on the release of water between border nations and a lack of incentive to help the riparian nation.
- Absence of early warning systems that can alert the downstream areas regarding excess water release.
- Irregularity in domestic rainfall patterns and water use renders cross-border management difficult.
- Frequent siltation of dams built to control the cross-border flow of rivers.
- Early conclusion of cross-border flood management agreements between the nations.
- Use of localized water harvesting solutions to replenish groundwater levels.
- Removal of encroachment on border areas and watershed regions to ensure quick water percolation.
- Use of satellites to assess the level f water that can cause floods.
Thus only sustainable partnerships between nations can help in flood management properly.