In light of increasing Industrial disasters in India, examine the reasons for their occurrence. Discuss the steps that have been taken to deal with Industrial disasters.

Industrial disasters refer to disasters that are linked with the functioning of industrial plants, and negligence that causes loss of life and property. They can be various types like Fire incidents, Gas leakage, Mining disasters, chemical industry disasters, etc.

Reasons for the occurrence of Industrial Disasters:

  • Inefficiency in compliance with safety regulations.
  • Inefficiency in implementation of acts like the Workers Compensation Act, Indian Boilers Act, Indian Fatal Accidents, etc.
  • Incompetency of staff.
  • Lack of compliance towards periodic safety checks and maintenance.
  • Technical causes like the use of defective equipment, machines, inadequate lighting, ventilation, etc.
  • Working condition – Psychological reasons like the monotony of work, tiredness, and overtime also contribute to such disasters.

Existing safeguards against Industrial Disasters:

  • Environment Protection Act, 1986.
  • Factories Act.
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991.
  • NGT Act, 2010.
  • The doctrine of Absolute Responsibility evolved after the 1985 Delhi Oleum gas leak. It provided that the enterprise must make sure that no harm is caused by hazardous materials used by the enterprise.

Despite various laws to tackle Industrial Disasters in India, there is a need to reassess their effectiveness.

  • There is a need to set up buffer zones around factories handling hazardous substances.
  • The compensation must be proportional to the capacity of the offering enterprise and must have a deterrence.
  • Specialized task force to tackle chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear accidents, etc.

In the light of India attracting industries from both within and around the world, it is imperative that strict measures are put in place to avoid the occurrence of Industrial Disasters.


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