Economic and Social Development


According to the World Bank (2000), “poverty is pronounced deprivation in wellbeing.” In other words, poverty refers to a lack of resources and opportunities that prevent individuals from living a fulfilling and healthy life. There are several different ways to… Read More

Environmental Degradation and Management

The Tonga-archipelago and Key carals sites o coast Brazil. The prime minister of India announced a $50 million grant for biodiversity conservation in India and other developing countries under the Hyderabad pledge. The next conference of the parties (CoP) will… Read More

International Economics

Autarky: A closed economy that has no trade relation with the rest of the world. Balance of trade: The difference between the value of exports and the value of imports. Trade deficit => imports > exports Trade surplus => exports… Read More


Demography is the statistical study of human population. It encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations. Crude Birth Rate (CBR) CBR measures the number of live births per 1000 population in a given year. Age-Specific… Read More

Banking and Insurance

Monetary Policy The term monetary policy refers to actions taken by central banks to affect monetary magnitudes or other financial conditions. Bank Rate Bank rate is the rate at which the central bank of a country provides loan to the… Read More

Price and Inflation

Inflation A persistent and appreciable rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. Demand-pull Inflation It is a situation when ‘too many money chasing after too few goods’. An… Read More


Frictional Unemployment A temporary phenomenon which arises when workers are temporarily out of work while changing jobs or are suspended due to strikes or lockouts. Casual Unemployment In industries/services such as construction, catering, etc., also in agriculture, where workers are… Read More

Development Economics

Agrarian System The pattern of land distribution, ownership and management, also the institutional and social structure of the agro-based economy. Agricultural extension services Services offered to the farmers, usually by the government or non-governmental organisations, in the form of transmitting… Read More

Market economy

A free private-enterprise economy governed by consumer sovereignty, a price system, and the forces of supply and demand. Mixed economic systems Economic systems that are a mixture of both capitalist and socialist economies. Public and private sectors co-exist in such… Read More

Stock Market

De-materialization De-materialization is the process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited into the BO’s account with his DP. Dalal Street A term that refers to the… Read More