Sessions of the Indian National Congress
|Year of Session||Place where the Session was held||Session President|
|1891||Nagpur||A. Anand Charlu|
|1897||Amaraoti||C. Sankaran Nair|
|1899||Lucknow||Romes Chander Dutt|
|1900||Lahore||Narayan Ganesh Chandravakar|
|1901||Calcutta||Dinesh E. Wacha|
|1905||Benaras||Gopal Krishn Gokhale|
Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912)
An English retired civil servant of the British Government of India; a political reformer; founded the Indian National Congressï¿½in 1885; also called the “Father of Indian Ornithology”. In an open letter to the graduates of the University of Calcutta, inï¿½1883, he said: “If only fifty men, good and true, can be found to found to join as founders, the thing can be established andï¿½the further development will be comparatively easy ……. You [need to] realize and stand prepared to act upon the eternalï¿½truth that self-sacrifice and unselfishness are the only unfailing guides to freedom and happiness.”
Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917)
A Parsea known as the Grand Old Man of India was an intellectual, educator, a cotton trader, member of the Britishï¿½Parliament (1892-1895) as the first British subject. He wrote Poverty and Un-British Rule in India in which the propounded hisï¿½wealth drain theory. Describing six factors of his drain theory, the counted them as: Firstly, India is governed by a foreignï¿½government. Secondly, India does not attract immigrants which bring labour and capital for economic growth. Thirdly,ï¿½India pays for Britain’s civil administrations and occupational army. Fourthly, India bears the burden of empire building inï¿½and out of its borders. Fifthly, opening the country to free trade was actually a way to exploit India by offering highly paidï¿½jobs to foreign personnel. Lastly, the principle income-earners would buy outside of India or leave with the money as theyï¿½were mostly foreign personnel.
Naoroji’s estimate was that around 200-300 million pound loss of revenue (in the days of lateï¿½19thï¿½ï¿½century) of Britain whichï¿½was never returned.
Gopal Krishana Gokhale : 1866-1915
Gokhale was one of Congress moderates of 1885 -1905 periods. He was the founder of the Servants of India Society. Heï¿½believed in non-violence (and as such the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi) and always advocated reforms within theï¿½existing government institutions. He was convinced that no Indian could have started the Indian National Congress, “… Ifï¿½an Indian could have come forward to start such a movement embracing all Indians, the officials in India would not haveï¿½allowed…..” On primary education while moving a bill in the Imperial Legislative Council in 1911, he had said: “Theï¿½State today accepts the education of the children as a primary duty resting upon it. Even if the advantages of an elementaryï¿½education be put as no higher than a capacity to read and write, its universal diffusion is a matter of prime importance, forï¿½literacy is better than illiteracy any day, and the banishment of whole people’s illiteracy is no mean an achievement. Butï¿½elementary education for the mass of the people means something more than a mere capacity to read and write. It meansï¿½for them a keener enjoyment of life and a more refined standard of living. It means a greater moral and economic efficiencyï¿½of the individual. It means a higher level of intelligence for the whole community in general.
The moderates urged the Government to introduce aï¿½number of reforms, the most important of which were : theï¿½reorganization of the Councils, simultaneous examinations, theï¿½abolition or reconstruction of the India Council, the repeal ofï¿½the Arms Act, the separation of the Judiciary from the Executive,ï¿½the appointment of Indians to the commissioned ranks, theï¿½reduction of military expenditure etc. etc. It is interesting toï¿½note that these demands of the moderate, formulated at theï¿½first two or three sessions of the Congress, remained more orï¿½less the same during the first twenty years of its life.
Written by princy