Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 A.D.)
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-1210)
The first sultan of the dynastyï¿½was Qutb-ud-din Aibak. He was a general of Muhammadï¿½Ghori and ruled over the territories conquered by Ghori inï¿½India. After Ghori’s death, Qutb-ud-din began to rule as anï¿½independent king.
Qutb-ud-din was a kind-hearted and generous man. Dueï¿½to his generosity, he was called ‘lakh baksh’ or giver of lakhs. Heï¿½built the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi and started theï¿½construction of the Qutub Minar.
Iltutmish (1211-1236 A.D.)
Qutb-ud-din Aibak was succeeded by Iltutmish. He isï¿½considered the real founder of the Sultanate. He faced manyï¿½problems but dealt with them strongly. He suppressed manyï¿½internal rebellions. He also consolidated his position in theï¿½north-west. In the east, he extended his empire up to Bengal.ï¿½He also completed the Qutub Minar.
Iltutmish had many sons. However, he considered none ofï¿½them capable enough of governing the Sultanate. He decidedï¿½that his daughter Raziya would succeed him. The nobles wereï¿½unhappy with the decision. After the death of Iltutmish, theyï¿½placed Rukh-nud-din Firoz Shah, a son of Iltutmish, on theï¿½throne. Rukh-nud-din, however failed to manage the affairs ofï¿½the kingdom. Within months he was deposed by Raziya.
Raziya Sultan (1236-1240 A.D.)
Raziya’s reign was short and full of problems. The nobles opposedï¿½her as she tried to reduce their power and began taking majorï¿½decisions without consulting them. They revolted against her.ï¿½She was deposed in the year 1240 A.D. and died soon afterwards.
After the death of Raziya and till the accession of Balban,ï¿½several kings came to the throne. Of these, Nasir-ud-dinï¿½Mahmud ruled for a long time, from 1246 to 1266 A.D. Noneï¿½of the rulers, however, could provide stability to the empire. Allï¿½these kings were puppets in the hands of powerful nobles.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-1286 A.D.)
Balban was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty. Heï¿½reorganised and strengthened the army. He fought against theï¿½local rulers and defeated many of them. He also fortified theï¿½north western borders against Mongol raids.
Balban made the sultan’s position supreme. He introducedï¿½the Persian custom of sijdah or prostration before the sultan andï¿½paibos or kissing the feet of the sultan. The orthodox Muslimsï¿½opposed this as according to them, a human being shouldï¿½prostate only before God.
Balban was succeeded by very weak kings. In 1290, the ruleï¿½of slave dynasty ended and the throne of Delhi passed into theï¿½hands of Khaljis.
Written by princy