Some conclusions by All-India Congress Committee
The committee is of the opinion that Britain is incapableï¿½of defending India. It is natural that whatever she does isï¿½for her own defense. There is the eternal conflict betweenï¿½Indian and British interest. It follows that their notionsï¿½of defense would also differ. The British Governmentï¿½has no trust in India’s political parties. The Indianï¿½Army has been maintained up till now mainly to holdï¿½India in subjugation. It has been completely segregatedï¿½from the general pollution, who can in no sense regardï¿½it as their own. This policy of mistrust still continues,ï¿½and is the reason why national defense is not entrustedï¿½to India’s elected representatives. Japan’s quarrel isï¿½not with India. She is warring against the Britishï¿½Empire. India’s participation in the war has notï¿½been with the consent of the representatives of theï¿½Indian people. It was purely a British act. If India wereï¿½freed, her first step would probably be to negotiateï¿½with Japan.
The Congress is of the opinion that if the Britishï¿½withdrew form India, India would be able to defendï¿½herself in the event of the Japanese, or any aggressor,ï¿½attacking India.
The committee is, therefore, of the opinion that theï¿½British should withdraw from India. The plea that theyï¿½should remain in India for the protection of the Indianï¿½princes is wholly untenable. It is an additional proof ofï¿½their determination to maintain their hold over India.ï¿½The princes need have no fear from an unarmed India.ï¿½The question of majority and minority is the creationï¿½of the British Government, and would disappear onï¿½their withdrawal. For all these reasons, the committeeï¿½appeals to Britain, for the sake of her own safety, for theï¿½sake of India’s safety and for the cause of would peace,ï¿½to let go her on India, even if she does not give up allï¿½her Asiatic and African possessions.
This committee desires to assure the Japaneseï¿½Government and people that India bears no enmity,ï¿½either toward Japan or toward any other nation. Indiaï¿½only desires freedom from all alien domination.
XV(V). Subhash Chandra Bose, INA andï¿½Naval Revolt
Subhash Chandra Bose (also spelled as Subhas) was born inï¿½Cuttak in 1897 and is presumed to have died in August, 1945.ï¿½He has been acclaimed as one of the most prominent leaders ofï¿½the Indian National Movement and in fact, has been a legendaryï¿½figure in India. He was addressed as Netaji (the Leader) for theï¿½first time in Germany and thereafter is popularly called Netaji.
The ideology of Subhash Chandra Bose centred aroundï¿½building a socialist authoritarianism on the lines of Turkey’sï¿½Kemal Ataturk for atleast two decades following India’sï¿½independence. In his temperament, Bose was a secular. His loveï¿½for India and her people had no parallel.
After having passed his graduation, he qualified the civilï¿½services examination, but, being a revolutionary in nature,ï¿½Bose resigned the appointment, saying that ‘the best way toï¿½end a government is to withdraw from it.’ Returning to Indiaï¿½from England, Bose plunged into Gandhi’s non-cooperationï¿½movement and became a Congressman with C.R. Dass as hisï¿½mentor. He used to write for Swaraj and remained editor ofï¿½the newspaper Forward, founded by C.R. Dass. In 1924, he wasï¿½elected the Mayor of Calcutta. In a roundup of nationalistsï¿½in 1925 , Bose was arrested and sent to Mandalay. In 1927, heï¿½became general secretary of the Congress Party and worked withï¿½Jawaharlal Nehru in the movement; in 1938 and 1939, he cameï¿½the President of the Indian National Congress.
He founded, afterï¿½resigning from the Congress, the Forward Bloc in 1940. He leftï¿½India in a guise of a Pathan, reached Kabul and thereafter wentï¿½to Russia, Italy, Germany and Japan during the World War IIï¿½to seek armed help for liberating India from the British yoke.ï¿½He contributed in reorganizing the Indian National Army inï¿½South East Asia, especially in Singapore. With the help of Japan,ï¿½he was able to defeat the Britishers and took over a couple ofï¿½areas in north-east India (Kohima and Imphal) and establishedï¿½a provisional government for India in exile. Bose did what noï¿½other Indian could do for India and that too, on and from aï¿½foreign land.
Subhash Chandra Bose was a strong champion ofï¿½unqualified Swaraj which was nothing short of completeï¿½independence. In his view, he was opposed to Gandhi’s politicalï¿½ideas and the Gandhian techniques of non-violence. For him,ï¿½Gandhi committed blunders (Bose felt Gandhi did nothing toï¿½save Bhagat Singh) in withdrawing his movements, especiallyï¿½the non-cooperation and the civil disobedience movement. Heï¿½rose to the high office of the President of the Congress despiteï¿½the support of Gandhi. And yet Bose’s respect for Gandhi was noï¿½less. It was Bose who addressed Gandhi (in a speech broadcastï¿½by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore on July 6, 1944) asï¿½”Father of the Nation” and sought his blessings for fighting theï¿½war against the Britishers.
Bose’s leadership of the Indian National Army (INA) withï¿½around 85 thousand regular troops with separate groups ofï¿½women’s brigades was undoubtedly remarkable. The Gandhi andï¿½the Nehru brigades of the INA were Bose’s popular operationalï¿½groups. His slogans “Give me blood, I will give you freedom”,ï¿½’Delhi Chalo’ and “Jai Hind” touched the heart of every Indian.ï¿½After the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II, the INAï¿½officers, especially (Shahnawaz Khan, PM Sehgal, and G.S.ï¿½Dhillon) were tried at Red Fort and were ably defended byï¿½Bhulabhi Desai.
The INA trial aroused the nationalistic sentiments andï¿½patriotic farvour. Such a kind of sympathies and support given toï¿½the INA men, exhibiting the Hindu-Muslim unity, shattered theï¿½British rulers in India. The Government had to submit and it didï¿½submit to the people’s love for the INA and for Bose’s chivalrousï¿½exploits, making him among the front-ranking leaders of theï¿½world.
During the winter of 1945-46, disaffection spread amongï¿½the military services which dealt a serious blow to the Britishï¿½prestige. Strangely enough, the troubles began in the R.A.F.,ï¿½and spread around Calcutta and other stations in India andï¿½the Middle East. These were followed by hunger strikers inï¿½Royal Indian Air Force and minor cases of indiscipline in theï¿½Royal Indian Army. The explosion occurred onï¿½18thï¿½ï¿½February,ï¿½1946 in the form of a mutiny of naval ratings at Bombay. Forï¿½the next five days, the leading base of the R.I.N. and the cityï¿½itself presented the appearance of a minor battlefield. Theseï¿½disturbances not only gave a rude shock to the British prestigeï¿½but also convinced the alien masters that it was now difficultï¿½for them to keep India in bondage for long. Consequently, anï¿½announcement about the British Cabinet Mission was made onï¿½19thï¿½ï¿½February, 1946, one day after the outbreak of the mutiny.
Written by princy