Some conclusions by All-India Congress Committee

The committee is of the opinion that Britain is incapable�of defending India. It is natural that whatever she does is�for her own defense. There is the eternal conflict between�Indian and British interest. It follows that their notions�of defense would also differ. The British Government�has no trust in India’s political parties. The Indian�Army has been maintained up till now mainly to hold�India in subjugation. It has been completely segregated�from the general pollution, who can in no sense regard�it as their own. This policy of mistrust still continues,�and is the reason why national defense is not entrusted�to India’s elected representatives. Japan’s quarrel is�not with India. She is warring against the British�Empire. India’s participation in the war has not�been with the consent of the representatives of the�Indian people. It was purely a British act. If India were�freed, her first step would probably be to negotiate�with Japan.

The Congress is of the opinion that if the British�withdrew form India, India would be able to defend�herself in the event of the Japanese, or any aggressor,�attacking India.

The committee is, therefore, of the opinion that the�British should withdraw from India. The plea that they�should remain in India for the protection of the Indian�princes is wholly untenable. It is an additional proof of�their determination to maintain their hold over India.�The princes need have no fear from an unarmed India.�The question of majority and minority is the creation�of the British Government, and would disappear on�their withdrawal. For all these reasons, the committee�appeals to Britain, for the sake of her own safety, for the�sake of India’s safety and for the cause of would peace,�to let go her on India, even if she does not give up all�her Asiatic and African possessions.

This committee desires to assure the Japanese�Government and people that India bears no enmity,�either toward Japan or toward any other nation. India�only desires freedom from all alien domination.

XV(V). Subhash Chandra Bose, INA and�Naval Revolt

Subhash Chandra Bose (also spelled as Subhas) was born in�Cuttak in 1897 and is presumed to have died in August, 1945.�He has been acclaimed as one of the most prominent leaders of�the Indian National Movement and in fact, has been a legendary�figure in India. He was addressed as Netaji (the Leader) for the�first time in Germany and thereafter is popularly called Netaji.

The ideology of Subhash Chandra Bose centred around�building a socialist authoritarianism on the lines of Turkey’s�Kemal Ataturk for atleast two decades following India’s�independence. In his temperament, Bose was a secular. His love�for India and her people had no parallel.

After having passed his graduation, he qualified the civil�services examination, but, being a revolutionary in nature,�Bose resigned the appointment, saying that ‘the best way to�end a government is to withdraw from it.’ Returning to India�from England, Bose plunged into Gandhi’s non-cooperation�movement and became a Congressman with C.R. Dass as his�mentor. He used to write for Swaraj and remained editor of�the newspaper Forward, founded by C.R. Dass. In 1924, he was�elected the Mayor of Calcutta. In a roundup of nationalists�in 1925 , Bose was arrested and sent to Mandalay. In 1927, he�became general secretary of the Congress Party and worked with�Jawaharlal Nehru in the movement; in 1938 and 1939, he came�the President of the Indian National Congress.

He founded, after�resigning from the Congress, the Forward Bloc in 1940. He left�India in a guise of a Pathan, reached Kabul and thereafter went�to Russia, Italy, Germany and Japan during the World War II�to seek armed help for liberating India from the British yoke.�He contributed in reorganizing the Indian National Army in�South East Asia, especially in Singapore. With the help of Japan,�he was able to defeat the Britishers and took over a couple of�areas in north-east India (Kohima and Imphal) and established�a provisional government for India in exile. Bose did what no�other Indian could do for India and that too, on and from a�foreign land.

Subhash Chandra Bose was a strong champion of�unqualified Swaraj which was nothing short of complete�independence. In his view, he was opposed to Gandhi’s political�ideas and the Gandhian techniques of non-violence. For him,�Gandhi committed blunders (Bose felt Gandhi did nothing to�save Bhagat Singh) in withdrawing his movements, especially�the non-cooperation and the civil disobedience movement. He�rose to the high office of the President of the Congress despite�the support of Gandhi. And yet Bose’s respect for Gandhi was no�less. It was Bose who addressed Gandhi (in a speech broadcast�by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore on July 6, 1944) as�”Father of the Nation” and sought his blessings for fighting the�war against the Britishers.

Bose’s leadership of the Indian National Army (INA) with�around 85 thousand regular troops with separate groups of�women’s brigades was undoubtedly remarkable. The Gandhi and�the Nehru brigades of the INA were Bose’s popular operational�groups. His slogans “Give me blood, I will give you freedom”,�’Delhi Chalo’ and “Jai Hind” touched the heart of every Indian.�After the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II, the INA�officers, especially (Shahnawaz Khan, PM Sehgal, and G.S.�Dhillon) were tried at Red Fort and were ably defended by�Bhulabhi Desai.

The INA trial aroused the nationalistic sentiments and�patriotic farvour. Such a kind of sympathies and support given to�the INA men, exhibiting the Hindu-Muslim unity, shattered the�British rulers in India. The Government had to submit and it did�submit to the people’s love for the INA and for Bose’s chivalrous�exploits, making him among the front-ranking leaders of the�world.

During the winter of 1945-46, disaffection spread among�the military services which dealt a serious blow to the British�prestige. Strangely enough, the troubles began in the R.A.F.,�and spread around Calcutta and other stations in India and�the Middle East. These were followed by hunger strikers in�Royal Indian Air Force and minor cases of indiscipline in the�Royal Indian Army. The explosion occurred on�18th��February,�1946 in the form of a mutiny of naval ratings at Bombay. For�the next five days, the leading base of the R.I.N. and the city�itself presented the appearance of a minor battlefield. These�disturbances not only gave a rude shock to the British prestige�but also convinced the alien masters that it was now difficult�for them to keep India in bondage for long. Consequently, an�announcement about the British Cabinet Mission was made on�19th��February, 1946, one day after the outbreak of the mutiny.

Written by princy

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