The period from 800 to 1200 A.D. saw the rise of many kingdoms.
The Rajputs were very powerful. The Tomars of Delhi,’The Chauhans of Rajasthan, Solankis of Gujarat,’Paramaras of Malwa, Pratiharas of Kannauj and’Chandellas of Bundelkhand were the powerful Rajput’kingdoms of the period.
The Ghaznavids and the Ghorids conquered some parts’of India.
In the Deccan, the Rashtrakutas were very powerful.’There were also many smaller kingdoms.
The Pallavas, Pandyas and the Cholas were the main’dynasties in the South India.’- The Chola Kingdom was the most powerful in the south’India. The Chola ruled for Tanjore. Rajaraja Chola'(98’5-1016 A.D.) and Rajendra Chola (1016-1044 A.D.) were’the greatest Chola rulers. They also had a strong navy.
The Chola kingdom was divided into mandalams'(provinces), valanadus (districts) and nadus (villages).’The villages managed their own affairs. Each village’had two assemblies-ur and sabha.
Society under the Cholas was marked by severe’inequalities. The king, state officials, Brahmins and’merchants were very prosperous. The peasants, labourers’and the lower castes were poor and exploited.
There was a tremendous increase in agricultural’production in the Tamil region.