The Constitution of India: Introduction

As compared to the other constitutions of the world, the Constitution of India (1950) is a fairly long written one with 395 Articles. The American Constitution (1989) is the shortest constitution with only 7 Articles, while the Constitution of India is the largest one.

India Facts

With an area of 32,87,263 sq km, India has a land frontier of around 15.200 km while the total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshdweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km. while from north to south, India measures 3,214 km, and east to west, 2,933. Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 804� and 3706� north, longitudes 6807 and 97025� east. Afghanistan and Pakistan are located in north-west of India while China, Bhutan and Nepal, in the north. Myanmar is in the far east and Bangladesh, in the near east, Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. India�s population (as per 2011 census) is 1,21,01,93,422 male, 62,37,24,248 and female, 58, 64, 69, 174; decadal population growth (2001-2011) has been 17.64%. Density in 2011, was 382: Bihar is the most thickly populated state where density is 1102 and sparsely in Arunachal Pradesh i.e. 17 (census, 2011).Sex ratio is highest in Kerala with 1084 and the lowest in Daman, Diu with 618 : 940 and literacy rate, 74.04% with male 82.14% and female, 65.46%; in 1951, literacy rate in India was 18.33%. Life expectancy is 69.2 years (2011 census).

The 2011 census recorded, in India, 640 districts, 5767 tehsils, 7742 towns and over 6 lakhs villages. The rural population in India is 83.31 crore (68.84%) and urban population, 37.71 crore (31.16%). With the lowering of the voting age to 18, there were over 490 million voters in India; in 1996 polls, the number rose to 590 million; in 2009, it touched around 716 million voters while in 2014, it rose to over 814 millions. General elections, in India, were held in 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014. The Himalayas comprise three parallel ranges �the outer, the middle and the inner�with a wall extending over a distance of about 2400 km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 km. The three distinct river systems�the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra�constitute the Himalayan rivers in addition to the others such as Deccan rivers, the coastal rivers and the inland drainage basins. The broad seasons in India are described as winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon. India is rich in, tenth in the world and fourth in Asia. About 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India. The country has a great variety of fauna, over 92,037 species. India�s National Anthem the song�Jana-gana-mana,�was composed by Rabindranath Tagore, and Vande Mataram by Bakimchandra Chatterji, Lotus is our national were ; the tiger, our national animal; the peacock, our national bird; the

Banyan Tree, our national tree, and mango, our national fruit. The Constitution (1950) had 395 Articles, 8 schedules and till June, 2016, 100 amendments. France (adopted in 1958) has 92 Articles, of Germany (1990), 146 Articles, of South Africa (1997), 243 Articles, of People�s Republic of China (1982), 138 Articles, of Afghanistan (2004), 162 Articles, of Australia (1901), 128 Articles, of Russia (1993), 137 Articles, of Singapore (1963), 103 Articles, of Switzerland (1998), 197 Articles, of Brazil (1980), 245 Articles, of Pakistan (1973), 280 Articles, of Sri Lanka (1978), 172 Articles, of Bangladesh (1972), 153 Articles, of Japan, 103 Articles.

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