Bipin Chandra Pal

Bipin Chandra Pal was a secular orator, Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, writer as well as social reformer of and during the Indian independence movement. He was one-third of the triumvirate Lal-Bal-Pal. Along with Sri Aurobindo, Pal was one of the leading architects of the Swadeshi movement. The partition of Bengal which was done by the British colonial government was strongly opposed by Pal.


Bipin Chandra Pal was born to the Hindu Bengal Kayasta family in the village of Poli in Habiganj, Bengal Presidency of British India. He was the son of Ramchandra Pal, a small landowner as well as a Persian scholar. He studied and taught at the Church Mission Society College, a partner university at the University of Calcutta. His son, Niranjan Pal, was one of the founding members of Bombay Talkies. One of his son-in-law was ICS Officer S. K. Day, who later became a Minister. His other son-in-law was the Freedom Fighter Ullaskar Dutta.

Pal was as revolutionary as he was in politics, and in his personal life. After the death of his first wife, he re-married a widow and then joined Brahmo Samaj.

Bipin Chandra Pal during the Freedom Movement

Pal is known from India as the father of Indian revolutionary thought. Pal has become a major leader in the Indian National Congress. At the Madras Conference of the Indian National Congress in the year 1887, he insisted on the abolition of the weapons law, which was inherently discriminatory. Along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai, he belonged to the trio Lal Bal Pal related to revolutionary activities. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal have been recognized as the leading indicators of a new national movement centered on Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycotts and national education ideals. The program consisted of Swadeshi, boycott, and national education. He preached and encouraged the use of Swadeshi and boycotts of foreign products to eradicate poverty and unemployment. He wanted to get rid of social illnesses and arouse nationalist sentiment through national criticism. He did not believe in mild protests in the form of non-cooperation with the British colonial government. The confident nationalist leader had nothing in common with Mahatma Gandhi on this one issue. For the last six years of his life, he left Congress and lived a secluded life. Sri Aurobindo called him one of the most powerful prophets of nationalism. Bipin Chandra Pal sought to remedy his social and financial dissatisfaction. He opposed the caste system and advocated the remarriage of widow. He advocated 48 hours a week and called for workers to raise their wages. He expressed contempt for Gandhi’s method and criticized it for being rooted in magic rather than logic.

Working for the Bengal Public Opinion

As a journalist, Pal promoted nationalism while working for the Bengal Public Opinion, New India and The Tribune. He has written several articles warning India about the changes taking place geopolitical situations as well as in China. Pal wrote “Our Real Danger” in one of his articles explaining where future dangers to India might come from.