Human Parainfluenza viruses cause upper and lower respiratory illness in infants, young children, elderly and those with weak immune system. They are the leading cause of childhood respiratory infection, accounting for around 30-40% of illnesses like croup and pneumonia. These viruses are of three types, with each causing different symptoms and illnesses. Of these, HPIV3 is the most prevalent, having no approved vaccines or anti-viral drugs.


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