Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) held in Montreal in December 2022 adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), which includes four goals and 23 targets to address the loss of biodiversity and restore natural ecosystems by 2030.

What is the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)?

The GBF is a set of targets adopted by the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in December 2022 that aims to address the loss of biodiversity and restore natural ecosystems by 2030.

How many countries have agreed upon GBF?

The GBF was agreed upon by representatives of 188 governments, including 95% of all Parties to the CBD, as well as the United States and the Vatican.

What are the targets of the GBF?

The targets of the GBF include protecting at least 30% of the world's land, water, coastal, and marine areas; restoring at least 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland water, coastal, and marine ecosystems; reducing or eliminating the loss of areas with high biodiversity importance; cutting global food waste in half and reducing overconsumption and waste; reducing the use of pesticides and hazardous chemicals by half; phasing out or reforming subsidies that harm biodiversity by at least $500 billion per year and scaling up incentives for conservation and sustainable use; mobilizing at least $200 billion per year in funding from all sources for biodiversity-related causes; increasing international financial flows to developing countries to at least $20 billion per year by 2025 and at least $30 billion per year by 2030; preventing the introduction of invasive species and reducing the establishment of other known or potential invasive species; and requiring large and transnational companies to disclose their risks and impacts on biodiversity.

What are the four overarching goals of the GBF?

The four overarching goals of the GBF include maintaining, enhancing, or restoring the integrity, connectivity, and resilience of all ecosystems; halting human-induced extinction of threatened species and reducing the extinction rate and risk of all species; maintaining genetic diversity within populations of wild and domesticated species; and sustainably using and managing biodiversity and valuing nature's contributions to people.

How will progress be measured for the GBF?

To ensure success, clear indicators have been set to measure progress and countries will be required to report on a large set of indicators related to their progress every five years or less. The CBD will combine national information submitted by countries into global trend and progress reports.

What is the timeline for achieving the targets of the GBF?

The targets of the GBF need to be achieved by 2030. The adoption of the GBF has been delayed by two years due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which leaves less time for countries to meet the targets.

How will the GBF be implemented and funded?

To support the implementation of the GBF, the Global Environment Facility has been requested to establish a Special Trust Fund, and a multilateral fund for the equitable sharing of benefits between providers and users of digital sequence information on genetic resources will be established within the GBF.

What is the goal of the GBF in relation to protecting the planet?

The GBF aims to protect at least 30% of the planet by 2030 and reverse ecosystem degradation.

What is the goal of the GBF in relation to government subsidies?

As part of the GBF, countries have pledged to reduce harmful government subsidies worth $500 billion annually and identify subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity by 2025.

How does the GBF affect India?

The GBF gives India the opportunity to continue farm subsidies and pesticide use, which has been linked to the decline of pollinators such as bees, while also requiring the country to disclose the risks and impacts of these subsidies on biodiversity.

What is the stance of United States on GBF?

The GBF has been agreed upon by the United States, along with other representatives from 188 governments, and aims to set humanity on a sustainable path with nature through the use of clear indicators to measure progress. The GBF targets apply to all participating countries, including the United States, and will require the country to work towards meeting the targets by 2030.

What is the goal of the GBF in relation to food waste and overconsumption?

The GBF aims to cut global food waste in half and reduce overconsumption and waste as part of its efforts to address the loss of biodiversity and restore natural ecosystems.

What is the goal of the GBF in relation to the use of pesticides and hazardous chemicals?

The GBF aims to reduce the use of pesticides and hazardous chemicals by half in order to protect biodiversity and restore natural ecosystems.

How does the GBF aim to increase funding for biodiversity-related causes?

The GBF aims to mobilize at least $200 billion per year in funding from all sources for biodiversity-related causes in order to support the implementation of the GBF and achieve its targets.

How does the GBF aim to increase international financial flows to developing countries?

The GBF aims to increase international financial flows to developing countries to at least $20 billion per year by 2025 and at least $30 billion per year by 2030 in order to support the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in these countries.

Written by princy

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