Social Security Programmes in India

Over the years, various policies and schemes to promote social security have been introduced in India. Some of the important schemes are discussed here.

National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) was launched by the Government of India in 1995 and represents a significant step towards the fullfilment of the Directive Principles in the Constitution. NSAP introduced a National Policy for Social Assistance for the poor and aims at ensuring minimum national standard for this assistance in addition to the benefits that states are currently providing or might provide in future.

NSAP comprises the following schemes: Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS), Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS), Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS), National Family Benet Scheme (NFBS) and Annapurna.

Programme Year of launch Key characteristics
Indira Gandhi National Old age 2007 Persons of 65 years and above who do not have any kind of source of
Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) income can avail this pension facility (INR 200 per person per month)
Indira Gandhi National Widow 2009 Widows aged between 45 and 64 years of age and from a household are
Pension Scheme (IGNWPS) eligible for pension amounting to INR 200 per month
National Family Benefit Scheme 1995 Financial assistance is given to the family on the death of the
(NFBS) breadwinner in the family (amount INR 10,000)
Annapurna Scheme 2000-2001 Indigent senior citizens (65 years of age� or above) who are under the
IGNOAPS can receive 10 kilograms of food grains per person per month
free of cost under the scheme

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jn-NURM)

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jn-NURM) was launched by India�s Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in December 2005. It is administered by the Ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation to support state and local investment in urban development. The overall objective of the Mission is to �create economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities.� It is to encourage reform and fast track planned development for identified cities with a sustained focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation and accountability of all ULBs/parastatal agencies.

The Jn-NURM combines an offer of financial support for infrastructure projects under a cost sharing arrangement with the states and local governments, which is linked to a carefully structured governance model, that includes both central assistance and mandatory and optional reforms. e duration of the mission is for seven years, commencing in 2005-2006 with an identified requirement of INR 1,205.36 billion ($28 billion) of investment in 63 cities across the nation.

To qualify for Jn-NURM funding, a three-tiered application with the following information is mandatory; first, it requires each qualifying city to prepare a city development plan (CDP) laying out their vision for the city over the next 20-25 years; second, a detailed project report (DPR) detailing their financial needs; and lastly, a timeline for the implementation of urban reforms for their respective city.

Social security for domestic workers

National Commission for Women (NCW) has recently suggested a comprehensive piece of Central legislation for domestic workers. A Bill titled �Domestic Workers Welfare and Social Security Act, 2010�, which highlights the exploitative nature of domestic work, including the recent practice of tracking in women and children, for domestic work, by spurious placement agencies has been drafted by NCW. The legislation has been designed specifically to address the working conditions of domestic workers, including their registration and the emphasis of the draft bill is on the regulation of placement agencies.

Urban Housing and Livelihoods

National Housing and Habitat Policy (NHHP)

National Housing and Habitat Policy (NHHP) was introduced in 1998 with the aim of �Housing for all�. Further, the National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (NUH&HP) 2007 sought to promote sustainable development of habitat in the country with a view to ensuring equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices to all sections of society. As part of efforts to achieve the goal of �Affordable Housing for All�, the NUH&HP mandates the reservation of �10�15 percent land in new public/ private housing projects or 20�25 percent of floor area ratio (FAR) (whichever is greater) for economically weaker sections (EWS)/low income group (LIG) housing through appropriate legal stipulations and special initiatives�.

National Policy for Urban Street Vendors of 2004

National Policy for Urban Street Vendors of 2004 provides and promotes a supportive environment for earning livelihoods to street vendors, as well as ensures the absence of congestion and maintenance of hygiene in public spaces and streets. Some of the basic objectives are to give vendors legal status, provide facilities for appropriate use of identified spaces, regulate access to public spaces through a nominal fee and give street vendors a role in distribution.

National Urban Sanitation Policy 2008

National Urban Sanitation Policy 2008 seeks to generate awareness, eliminate open defecation, promote integrated citywide sanitation, promote safe disposal and proper operation and maintenance of all sanitary installations.

Written by princy

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