UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Examination History Syllabus
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary;ï¿½poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
Pre-history and Proto-history:
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
Indus Valley Civilization:
Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
Aryans and Vedic Period:
Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedicï¿½ period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
Post ï¿½ Mauryan Period:
(Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
Early State and Society:
in Eastern India,ï¿½Deccan and South India:ï¿½Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration,ï¿½economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
Guptas, Vakatakasï¿½and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indianï¿½feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools,ï¿½ ideas in Science and Mathematics.
Early Medieval India, 750-1200:ï¿½Polity:
Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs;ï¿½The Cholas: administration, village economy and society;ï¿½ï¿½Indian Feudalismï¿½;ï¿½Agrarian economy and urban settlements;ï¿½Trade and commerce;ï¿½Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order;ï¿½Condition of women;ï¿½Indian science and technology
Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa;ï¿½Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism;ï¿½Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhanï¿½s Rajtarangini, Alberuniï¿½s India;ï¿½Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
The Thirteenth Century:
Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions ï¿½ factors behind Ghurian success;ï¿½Economic, social and cultural consequences;ï¿½Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans;ï¿½Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
The Fourteenth Century:
ï¿½The Khalji Revolutionï¿½;ï¿½Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures;ï¿½Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq;ï¿½Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battutaï¿½s account;
Society, Culture and Economy:
in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:ï¿½Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement;ï¿½Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture;ï¿½Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century:
Political Developments and Economy:ï¿½Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids;ï¿½The Vijayanagra Empire;ï¿½Lodis;ï¿½Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur andï¿½ Humayun;ï¿½The Sur Empire: Sher Shahï¿½s administration;ï¿½Portuguese Colonial enterprise;ï¿½Bhakti and Sufi Movements
The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Centuryï¿½
Society and Culture:ï¿½Regional cultural specificities;ï¿½Literary traditions;ï¿½Provincial architecture;ï¿½Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Conquests and consolidation of the Empire;ï¿½Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems;ï¿½Rajput policy;ï¿½Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy;ï¿½Court patronage of art and technology
Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb;ï¿½The Empire and the Zamindars;ï¿½Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb;ï¿½Nature of the Mughal State;ï¿½Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts;ï¿½The Ahom Kingdom;ï¿½Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
Population, agricultural production, craft production;ï¿½Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution;ï¿½Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems;ï¿½Condition of peasants, condition of women;ï¿½Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
Culture in the Mughal Empire:
Persian histories and other literature;ï¿½Hindi and other religious literature;ï¿½Mughal architecture;ï¿½Mughal painting;ï¿½Provincial architecture and painting;ï¿½Classical music;ï¿½Science and technology
The Eighteenth Century:
Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire;ï¿½The regional principalities: Nizamï¿½s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh;ï¿½Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas;ï¿½The Maratha fiscal and financial system;ï¿½Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761;ï¿½State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest
Paper ï¿½ II
European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements;ï¿½The Portuguese and the Dutch;ï¿½The English and the French East India Companies;ï¿½Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance ofï¿½ Plassey.
British Expansion in India:
Bengalï¿½ï¿½ Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
Early Structure of the British Raj:
The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pittï¿½s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue;ï¿½arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society;ï¿½Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist ï¿½ Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
Social and Religiousï¿½Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; Thecontribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism ï¿½ the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 ï¿½ Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism
Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relatingï¿½to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; Theï¿½Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
Rise of Gandhi
Character of Gandhianï¿½nationalism; Gandhiï¿½s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
Constitutional Developmentsï¿½in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
Other strands in the National Movement:
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
Politics of Separatism:
The Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
Consolidation as a Nation:
Nehruï¿½s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
Caste and Ethnicity:
After 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
Economic development and political change;ï¿½Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post ï¿½ colonial India; Progress of science.
Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau;ï¿½Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies;ï¿½Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism
Origins of Modern Politics:
European States System;ï¿½American Revolution and the Constitution;ï¿½French revolution and aftermath, 1789- 1815;ï¿½American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery;ï¿½British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society;ï¿½Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan;ï¿½Industrialization and Globalization.
Rise of Nationalism in 19th century;ï¿½Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy;ï¿½Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.
Imperialism and Colonialism:
South and South-East Asia;ï¿½Latin America and South Africa;ï¿½Australia;ï¿½Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
19th Century European revolutions,ï¿½The Russian Revolution of 1917- 1921,ï¿½Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany;ï¿½The Chinese Revolution of 1949
1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications;ï¿½World War I: Causes and consequences;ï¿½World War II: Causes and consequence
The World after World War II:ï¿½
Emergence of two power blocs;ï¿½Emergence of Third World and non-alignment;ï¿½UNO and the global disputes.
Liberation from Colonial Rule:
Latin America-Bolivar;ï¿½Arab World-Egypt;ï¿½Africa-Apartheid to Democracy;ï¿½South-East Asia-Vietnam
Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
Unification of Europe:
Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community;ï¿½Consolidation and Expansion of European Community;ï¿½European Union.
Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991;ï¿½Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001;ï¿½End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.
Written by princy