UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Examination Philosophy Syllabus

Paper � I

History and Problems of Philosophy:

  • Plato and Aristotle:�Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
  • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz):�Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
  • Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume):�Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
  • Kant:�Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
  • Hegel:�Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
  • Moore, Russell and Early�Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
  • Logical Positivism:�Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  • Later Wittgenstein:�Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language.
  • Phenomenology (Husserl):�Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
  • Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger):�Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the �world and Temporality.
  • Quine and Strawson:�Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
  • Carvaka :�Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
  • Jainism:�Theory of Reality; Saptabha�ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
  • Schools�of Buddhism: Prat�tyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada
  • Nyaya- Vai�esika: Theory of Categories;�Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
  • Samkhya: Prakrti;�Purusa; Causation; Liberation
  • Yoga:�Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
  • Mimamsa:�Theory of Knowledge
  • Schools of Vedanta:�Brahman; ��vara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
  • Aurobindo:�Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper � II

Socio-Political Philosophy:

  • Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya. Individual and State: Rights;
  • Duties and Accountability Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy. Political Ideologies: Anarchism;
  • Marxism and Socialism Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  • Development and Social Progress. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
  • Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar Philosophy of Religion: Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  • Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).Problem of Evil. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  • Reason, Revelation and Faith. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).Religion without God. Religion and Morality.
  • Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Noncognitive.

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