Demographics and Census


Demography is the statistical study of human population. �Demos� in Greek means �the people� and �graphy� means a ��descriptive science�� or a �field of study�. �It encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging and death.

The term �demographics� refers to characteristics of a population. Census The census provides information on size, distribution and socio-economic, demographic and other characteristics of the country�s population. The Census of India is the most credible source of information on demography, economic activity, literacy and education, housing & household amenities, urbanization, fertility and mortality, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, language, religion, migration, disability and many other socio-cultural and demographic data since 1872. Census 2011 is the 15th National Census of the Country.

This is the only source of primary data in the village, town and ward level, The Delimitation/ reservation of Constituencies. Parliamentary/Assembly/ Panchayats and other Local Bodies is also done on the basis of the demographic data thrown up by the Census. A systematic and modern population census, in its present form was conducted non-synchronously between 1865 and 1872 in different parts of the country. This effort culminating in 1872 has been popularly labelled as the first population census of India. However, the first synchronous census in India was held in 1881. Since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years. The Census of India 2001 was the fourteenth census in the continuous series as reckoned from1872 and the sixth since independence. The Indian Census is one of the largest administrative exercises undertaken in the world.

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

Measures the number of live births per 1000 population in a given year.

Crude birth rate (CBR) = Number of live births during the year/Mid-year population* 10000

Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR)

The age-specific fertility rate measures the annual number of births to women of a specied age or age group per 1,000 women in that age group.

Age-specific fertility rate =Number of live births in a particular age-group/Mid-year female population of the same age-group*� 1000

General Fertility Rate (GFR)

Is the number of live births per 1000 women ages 15-49 in a given year.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Is the sum of the Age-Specic Fertility Rates (5-ye ar age groups between 15 and 49) for female residents during a year multiplied by 5, whole divided by 1000.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

Is the total number of deaths to residents in a given year divided by the total population of that year per thousand.

Crude death rate (CDR) = Number of deaths during the year/Mid-year population*� 1000

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

Is the number of newborns dying under one year of age divided by the number of live births per thousand.

Infant mortality rate (IMR)= Number of infant deaths during the year/Number of live births during the year

Neo-natal Mortality Rate

The ratio of the number of deaths of children less than 29 days of age in one year to the number of live births in that year per thousand.

Post Neo-natal Mortality Rate

The ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children more than 29 days up to one year of age to the number of live births in that year per thousand.

Neo-natal mortality rate (NMR) = Number of infant deaths of < than 29 days during the year Number of live births during the year* 1000

Post neo-natal mortality rate (PNMR) = Number of infant deaths of 29 days to < than one year during the year/Number of live births during the year* 1000

Fertility and Mortality Rates in India - 2015

Item Total Rural Urban
Percentage distribution of population by broad age groups


0-14 27.3 28.9 23.9
15-59 64.4 62.9 67.7
60+ 8.3 8.3 8.4
II. Fertility Indicators
Crude Birth Rate 20.8 22.4 17.3
General Fertility Rate 76.2 83.8 60.8
Age-specific fertility Rate
15-19 11.1 12.3 8.3
20-24 173.8 192.7 132.0
25-29 150.3 163.5 125.8
30-34 77.6 85.3 63.6
35-39 26.2 28.9 22.1
40-44 10.9 12.3 8.4
45-49 3.6 4.1 2.8
Total Fertility Rate 2.3 2.5 1.8
Gross Reproduction Rate 1.1 1.2 0.8
General Marital Fertility Rate 113.4 123.8 92.0
Total Marital Fertility Rate 4.6 4.7 4.2
Mean age at effective marriage for females 22.1 21.6 23.0
  • Total Fertility Rate by level of education of the mother
Illiterate 3.7 3.9 2.7
Literate 2.1 2.3 1.8
IV. Mortality Indicators
Crude Death Rate 6.5 7.1 5.4
Percentage of infant deaths to total deaths 11.9 13.3 8.1
Percentage of deaths of less than one week to total infant deaths 52.2 54.2 43.4
Under-five Mortality Rate 43 48 28
Infant Mortality Rate 37 41 28
Neo-natal mortality rate 25 29 15
Early neo-natal mortality rate 19 22 11
Late neo-natal mortality rate 6 6 4
Post neo-natal mortality rate 12 13 10
Peri-natal Mortality rate 23 26 15
Still Birth Rate 4 4 4

Written by princy

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply