S 400 system

The S 400 Triumf is an anti-aircraft weapon system designed and developed by Russia. It was developed in the 1990s as an upgrade to the erstwhile S-300 series. The aircraft is in service in the Russian Armed Forces since the year 2007. It is not only being used by the Russian defense forces but is also being exported to other countries.

Key Points for UPSC Prelims

  • China was the first nation to procure this advanced defense system in the year 2014, and since then Saudi Arabia, Belarus, and Turkey and have acquired it.
  • This system houses some of the most sophisticated defense features like anti-aircraft missile systems, multifunction radar, launchers, autonomous detection, and targeting systems, and command and control centres.
  • It has the capability of firing three types of missiles in order to create a layered defense mechanism.
  • These defense systems have the ability to track 100 airborne targets and engage with 6 of them simultaneously.

USA imposed CAATSA on Turkey

  • Recently, the USA has imposed sanctions on Turkey under Section 231 of CAATSA for procuring the S 400 defense system from Russia.
  • The sanctions have been imposed on the major defense procurement of Turkey-Presidency of Defense Industries (SSB).
  • In the year 2017, Turkey signed the deal for purchasing the S-400 defense equipment system from Russia ignoring the concerns raised by the US.
  • Now, on the concerns of leakage of sensitive data and ignorance of criticism to the deal by the US; CAATSA has been imposed on Turkey.
  • Under the sanctions, visa restrictions have been imposed on the SSB President Ismail Demir and other officials.
  • Other sanctions include a prohibition on granting specific U.S. export licenses and authorizations for any goods or technology transferred to SSB; a ban on U.S. Export-Import Bank assistance for exports to SSB; a prohibition on loans or credits by U.S. financial institutions to SSB totaling more than $10 million in any 12-month period; and a requirement for the United States to oppose loans benefitting SSB by international financial institutions.


CAATSA i.e. Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act is a law passed by the United States of America in the year 2017 through which it has imposed sanctions on countries like North Korea, Iran, Russia, and Turkey.

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