UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Examination Botany Syllabus
UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Examination Syllabus of Botany.
Paper ' I
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology
- Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma;
- Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.
- Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination;
- Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes ' structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.
- Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales; Geological time scale;
- Type of fossils and their study techniques.Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.Origin and evolution of angiosperms;
- Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families ' Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.
- Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.
- Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm ' its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.
4. Plant Resource
- Development: Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov's centers of origin;
- Plants as sources for food, fodder, fiber, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products;
- Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
- Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation;
- Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.
Paper ' II
1. Cell Biology
- Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells ' structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport;
- Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes); Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors;
- Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis; Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes ' structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution
- Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over;
- Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis);
- Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing;
- Multigene families; Organic evolution ' evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:
- Methods of plant breeding ' introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding;
- DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering ' methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques ' probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
- Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square test); Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson); Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry
- Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies; Photosynthesis ' photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport; Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation) ' electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration;
- Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome); Plant movements;
- Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances ' their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy, storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening ' its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography
- Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession; Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
- Forest types of India ' Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism, IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention on Biological Diversity;
- Farmers' Rights and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.