# UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Examination Physics Syllabus

Paper ' I:

1.' Mechanics of Particles:

Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler's laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field' and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced' mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory reference' frames.

2. Mechanics of Rigid Bodies:

System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum' and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler's theorem, angular velocity,' angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation;' Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di' and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media:' Elasticity, Hooke's law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity,' Poiseuille's equation, Bernoulli's equation, Stokes' law and applications.(d) Special Relativity: Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic' velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy' relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional' momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.

3. Waves and Optics:

(a) Waves: Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses' and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from' Huygens' principle.(b) Geometrical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle; Matrix method in' paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic' and spherical aberrations.(c) Interference: Interference of light-Young's experiment,' Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam' interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.(d) Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.(e) Polarization and Modern Optics: Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fiber optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index' fibers; Material dispersion, single mode fibers; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams;' Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.

4. Electricity and Magnetism:

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of' scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a' dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an' external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting' and dielectric spheres in a uniform' electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.(b) Current Electricity: Kirchhoff's laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits;' DC and AC circuits with R, L and C' components; Series and parallel resonances;' Quality factor; Principle of transformer.(c) Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Displacement current and Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting' theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic' field tensor, covariance of' Maxwell's equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction' at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel's relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law, Stefan-' Boltzmann law, Wien's displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans' law.

5. Thermal and Statistical Physics:

(a) Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential;' van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport' phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and' Debye's theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius- Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetization, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.(b) Statistical Physics: Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody' radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

#### PAPER ' II:

1. Quantum Mechanics:'

Wave-particle duality; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a' step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals;' Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.

2.'Atomic and Molecular Physics:'

Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; Frank- Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

3. Nuclear and Particle Physics:'

Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas; Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear' forces; Salient features of nuclear forces;' Shell model of the nucleus ' successes and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion;' Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions; Conservation laws; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.

4.'Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics:'

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids ' conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism:' para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications;' Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pn- p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and' oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan's laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.`