Water Scarcity in India: Causes & Solutions

Water scarcity is a serious global problem. It is defined as the lack of sufficient water resources to meet the needs of a given population. India is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world and is facing a severe water crisis. It is estimated that the demand-supply gap of water will increase from 50% to 75% by 2030. In this article, we will discuss the causes and solutions of water scarcity in India.

Causes of Water Scarcity

Population Growth

India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. This has led to an increase in the demand for water resources, resulting in a scarcity of water.

Poor Water Management

India has a poor record of water management. The country has inadequate infrastructure for collecting, storing and distributing water. According to the World Bank, only 28% of the wastewater generated in India is treated. This leads to a large amount of water being wasted, resulting in a shortage of water resources.

Climate Change

Climate change has had a significant impact on water resources in India. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have led to an increase in drought and floods, resulting in a decrease in the availability of water.


Pollution is a major cause of water scarcity in India. Pollutants such as industrial waste, sewage and agricultural runoff contaminate water bodies, making them unsuitable for human consumption.

Solutions for Water Scarcity

Water Conservation

Water conservation is the most important solution for water scarcity in India. There are several measures that can be taken to conserve water, such as using water efficient appliances, using rainwater harvesting techniques and using water-saving techniques in agriculture.

Improving Water Management

Improving water management is essential for tackling water scarcity in India. This includes improving the infrastructure for collecting, storing and distributing water, as well as developing effective policies and regulations for water management.

Recharging Groundwater

Groundwater is a key source of water in India. Recharging groundwater through rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge can help to increase the availability of water resources in the country.

Treating Wastewater

Treating wastewater is essential for preventing pollution of water bodies and ensuring the availability of fresh water. This can be done through the use of sewage treatment plants and other advanced technologies.


Water scarcity is a serious global problem, and India is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The causes of water scarcity in India are population growth, poor water management, climate change and pollution. In order to address the problem of water scarcity, it is necessary to take measures such as water conservation, improving water management, recharging groundwater and treating wastewater.

Written by IAS POINT

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply