Crude Birth Rate (CBR), General Fertility Rate (GFR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Crude Birth Rate (CBR), General Fertility Rate (GFR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The SRS 2014 estimates showed a Crude Birth Rate (CBR) of 21 and General Fertility Rate (GFR) of 77.6 at all India level. In 2014, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was at 2.3. TFR was high for illiterate women both in rural and urban areas, higher among rural illiterate women and statistics reveal that improvement in educational level lowers the TFR.

Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR)

In 2014, Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) was 1.1 at all India level (Rural 1.2, Urban 0.8) and it remained unchanged during the last three years.

Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR)

The SRS 2014 reported that the age-specific fertility rate was highest (174.9) in the age group 20- 24 years followed by the age group 25-29 years (143.7) and 30- 34 years (76.6).The ASFR in rural India continues to be at a higher level than urban areas for all age groups. In 2014, a rise in ASFR has been observed for women in higher age groups (30+ years) compared to the previous year.

The data reveals that ASFR peaks in the age group 20-24 where level of education is class X or below, whereas it peaks in the age-group 25-29 where level of education is class 12th and above.

Mortality Rate

The mortality rate among females across all ages was 6.2 and that among males was 7.1 in 2014.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

In 2014, the Infant Mortality (IMR) for females was 40 while that for males was 37. The rate of decline in the IMR of females is faster than that of IMR among males. The highest IMR was in the State of Madhya Pradesh (52) and lowest in Goa (10) in 2014.

Maternal Mortality Ratio

The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) has declined from 301 in 2001-03 to 167 in 2011-13. Among the major States, MMR was highest in Assam (300) followed by West Bengal. 22 Health related statistics Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR).In 2014, the Age Specific Mortality Rate for females was less than that of males for all age group except for 0-4 years and 5-9 years.

Life Expectancy

The trend shows that, at all India level, females have more life expectancy than males. During 2010-2014, the life expectancy for females was 69.6 years and for males was 66.4 years.

Life Expectancy at Birth

The Life Expectancy which was 49.7 years during 1970 -75 increased to the level of 63.0 years in 2000-04 further improved and stood at 63.5 years during 2002-06. This has revealed decrease in death rate and the better improvement of quality health services in India. However, there are inter-state, male-female and rural urban differences in life expectancy at birth due to low literacy, differential income levels and socio-economic conditions and beliefs. In Kerala, a person at birth is expected to live for 74 years while in states like Bihar, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, etc, the expectancy is in the range of 58-61 years.

Crude Birth Rate

The Crude Birth Rate declined from 29.5 per 1000 population in 1991 to 21 in 2013. The CBR is higher (23) in rural areas as compared to urban areas (17). However, there are inter-state and rural-urban differences are quite pertinent. Uttar Pradesh recorded the highest CBR (27) and Goa the lowest (13).

Crude Death Rate

The Crude Death Rate which was 25.1 per 1000 population in 1951 came down to 9.8 in 1991 and further declined to 7 in 2013. The CDR is higher in rural areas (7.5) as compared to urban areas (5.6).

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)

MMR has reduced from 254 per 100000 live births in 2004-06 to 167 per 100000 live births in 2011-13 (SRS). Four southern states, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have already achieved the goal of a MMR of 100 per 100000 live births. Assam remains India�s most maternal death prone state. It is the State with lowest MMR of 300 in 2011-13.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

The IMR, according to SRS 2013 at national level was 40 per 1000 live births in 2013. The IMR has shown a steady decline from 129 deaths per 1000 live births in 1971 to the current level. The IMR is higher in respect of Female (42) as compared to Male (39). IMR is also higher in rural areas (44 per 1000 live births) as compared to urban areas (27 per 1000 live births) during 2013. The IMR varied very widely across the states; Kerala with an IMR of 12 is the best performing state among the bigger States in the country.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

India�s Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is at 2.3 (SRS-2013). While the following States and UTs (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Goa, Puducherry, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Tripura, Chandigarh, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Punjab, Delhi Maharashtra, Daman & Diu, Karnataka, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Lakshadweep) have already achieved the replacement level, States like Assam, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan have TFR between 2.1 and 3.0. Bihar and U.P. still have TFR more than 3.0.

Written by princy

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