National Agricultural Policy
Indiaï¿½s National Agricultural Policy (NAP) has stressed the importance of management and conservation of resources by stating that, ï¿½the policy will seek to promote technically sound, economically viable, environmentally non-degrading, and socially acceptable use of countryï¿½s natural resourcesï¿½ land, water and genetic endowment to promote sustainable development of agricultureï¿½. The Central and state governments have initiated several measures to promote sustainable agricultural development. The NAP stated that improving the quality of land and soil, rational utilization and conservation of water, and sensitizing the farming community to environmental concerns would receive high priority.
Key Programmes Initiated in the Agricultural Sector
Several programmes have been introduced to increase agricultural productivity and profitability, and in domains of input provision, irrigation, drought protection, price policy and credit and insurance.
National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
- To increase the production of rice by 10 million tonnes, wheat by 8 million tonnes and pulses by 2 million tonnes by the end of Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007-2012).
- Measures include bridging the yield gap with respect to the identified crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices.
Rashtriya Krishi Vikaas Yojna (RKVY)
- Considers a holistic development of the agricultural and allied sectors.
- Aims to achieve an annual growth rate of 4 percent in the agricultural sector during the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12).
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
- Main objectives are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water.
- Key outcomes include prevention of soil run or regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table.
National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Area (NWDPRA)
- Promotes agriculture productivity and production in rainfed areas.
- Programme is planned, implemented, monitored and maintained by watershed communities.
Command Area Development and Water Management Programme (CADWM)
- Objectives of improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity.
- Area Development Authorities provide technical support.
National Project for Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies
- To restore and augment storage capacities of water bodies,
- Recover and extend their lost irrigation potential.
Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Scheme
- Provides adequate and timely credit to farmers under single window, with flexible and simplified procedure.
National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS)
Addresses the issue of production risk faced by the agricultural farmers
Funding is divided between the Central and State Government on a 50-50 sharing basis.
Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)
Works on ensuring central assistance on agriculture is spent on focused and specific interventions for the development of agriculture in the state.
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM)
- Works on providing flexibility to the states to diversify crop production
- Provides a focused approach to the programme keeping in mind the regional dierentiation of each state.
Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS)
- Mitigates the hardship of the insured farmers against the likelihood of financial loss.
- Provides coverage against weather parameters like rainfall, temperature, frost, humidity, etc.
Initiatives during 2014-16 for Development of Agriculture and Welfare of Farmers
The Government has taken a number of initiatives during last 18 months for development of agriculture sector and welfare of farmers.
- To improve the quality of land, the government has decided to provide Soil Health Card to 14 crore farmers of the country. 5 crore farmers to be provided Soil Heath Card in 2015-16 and to remaining farmers in 2016-17 Rs. 568 crore have been sanctioned for providing Soil Health Cards to all the farmers.
- To promote organic farming, a new Scheme called Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana started in 2015-16 with an allocation of Rs. 300 crore. So far 8000 clusters have been farmed.
- New Scheme called Prime Minister Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) launched with an allocation of Rs. 5300 crore for the present year with an objective to provide water to every farm.
- National Agriculture Market Scheme (NAM) launched to connect mandis across the entire country. More than 20 states have expressed interest in linking their mandis with this project.
- The government has changed the norms for compensation to the disaster affected farmers from minimum affected area from 50% to now 30%. Further, the compensation has been increased to 1.5 times. Four crops added in National Food Security Mission (NFSM) taking to seven Rs. 10 cr sanctioned for honey bee development.
- 8,50,000 crore will be provided to the farmers through the bank so that the farmer should not go to doors of moneylenders. Rs. 534151 cr agriculture credit advanced to the farmers in 2014-15 and Rs. 603186 crore in 2015-16 (till December). Neem coated urea is being distributed and steps have been initiated against black marketing of urea.
- Two National Kamdhenu Breeding Centers opened in the country, one in the North and one in the South. National Gokul Mission started for development and conservation of indigenous cattle breeds. Rs. 550 cr sanctioned in 2014-15 (till December) as against only Rs. 45 cr in 2013-14.
- Blue Revolution initiated to increase fisheries production. Production increased to 150 lakh tonnes in 2015-16 as against 95.72 lakh tonnes in the last year.
- Coverage under National Livestock Mission (NLM) extended to entire country. 19 lakh Animal insured in present region as against 10.88 lakh in last year (2013-14). Similarly, only 300 districts were covered in 2013-14 and this has been taken up to 676 districts in 2014-15. Increase in an average price paid to the dairy farmers from Rs. 28.96 per liter to Rs. 32.72 per litre.
- More than 40 times increase in allocation to agriculture education. Central Agriculture University Imphal to have 13 colleges instead of existing 7 in north eastern region. Rs. 3099 cr sanctioned for remodeling of KVKs and agriculture extension.
- Eight new agricultural universities opened in several states to give thresh to the agriculture education. New schemes such as Mera Gaon Mera Garav, Mission 2050, Farmers First, Student Ready started in 2015.
Written by princy