Equity and Climate Change
Two Dimensions of Equity
(i) There are two dimensions of equity ï¿½ inter-generational and intra-generational. In the specific context of climate change, intergenerational refers to the spatial distribution of global GHG emissions budgets, GHG emissions rights, implicit costs and benefits, and impacts of climate change inefficiency are geared to mitigation.
(ii) India has announced a domestic goal of reducing the emission intensity of its GDP by 20-25 per cent of the 2005 level by 2020. This will be achieved through a multi-sector low carbon development strategy. It is intended that lower carbon sustainable growth be a central element of our Twelfth Five-Year Plan.
(iii) Apart from the NAPCC, all the states have also been asked to prepare state-level action plans. These plans are envisioned as extensions of the NAPCC at various levels of governance, aligned with the eight National Missions. Some states like Delhi and Gujarat and some Himalayan states have already taken the lead and been proactive in addressing climate change. Delhi launched a climate change action plan for 2009-2012 formulated on the lines of the NAPCC.
Update on Climate Change and Sustainable Development
Two Landmark Events in 2015
The year 2015 witnessed two landmark international events. First, the historic climate change agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted by 195 nations in Paris in December 2015, with the aim of keeping the rise in global temperature well below 2ï¿½C, which will set the world towards a low carbon, resilient and sustainable future.
Second, the world witnessed the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015 which replaces the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and set the development agenda for the next 15 years with the aim of guiding the international community and national governments on a path of sustainable development.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Placing emphasis on concepts like climate justice and sustainable lifestyles, the Paris agreement seeks to enhance the ï¿½implementation of the Conventionï¿½ while reflecting the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances. Further, the Agreement is not mitigation-centric and covers all crucial areas identified, including adaptation, loss and damage, finance, technology, capacity building and transparency of action and support.
To achieve the long-term temperature goal of keeping the increase below 2ï¿½C, parties in the Agreement aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas as soon as possible while noting that developing countries will take longer to peak their emissions. The agreement also establishes a framework for global stocktaking to assess the collective action towards achieving the long-term goals mentioned in the agreement.
The Agreement provides binding obligation for developed countries to provide financial resources to developing countries for both mitigation and adaptation while encouraging other countries to provide support on voluntary basis. It reaffirms that developed countries will take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds. The decision also sets a new collective quantified goal from a US$100 billion per year prior to 2025, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries.
Pre-2020 actions are also part of the decisions. The Agreement also called upon developed countries to scale up their level of financial support with a complete road map for achieving the goal of jointly providing US$100 billion by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation, by significantly increasing adaptation from current levels and to further provide appropriate technology and capacity building support.
Written by princy