Poverty, Unemployment & Rural-Urban Disparity


The poverty estimates indicate that the highest poverty headcount ratio (HCR) exists in Bihar at 53.5 per cent as against the national average of 29.8 per cent. In 2009- 10 compared to 2004-5, Bihar has displaced Odisha as the poorest state, with Odisha�s situation improving considerably in 2009-10. Lowest poverty is in Himachal Pradesh (9.5 per cent) followed by Kerala (12%).

Rural-Urban Disparity

Bihar has the lowest MPCE both in rural and urban areas at Rs. 780 (with 65 per cent food share) and Rs.1238 (with 53 per cent food share) respectively. In comparison, Kerala has Economic and Social Development�11 the highest in both rural and urban areas at Rs.1835 (with 46 per cent food share) and Rs. 2413 (with 40 per cent food share) respectively. It is obvious that poorer states spend a greater proportion of income on food in total consumption expenditure.


As per usual status(adjusted) NSS 66th round 2009-10, the unemployment rate (per 1000) among the major states is the lowest in Gujarat (18) and highest in Kerala (73) and Bihar (73) in urban areas and the lowest in Rajasthan (4) and again highest in Kerala (75) in rural areas. The low unemployment rate in rural areas in Rajasthan may partly be due to high absorption of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) funds in the state.

Kerala, which has performed well in terms of most indicators, performs less well in terms of unemployment (both rural and urban). This may be due to the higher level of education in Kerala resulting in people not opting for manual jobs as observed by some studies.


Kerala is the best performer in terms of life expectancy at birth for both males (71.5 years) and females (76.9 years) whereas Assam is the worst performer for both males (61 years) and females (63.2 years) during 2006-10. Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national average of 44. Birth rate is lowest in Kerala (15.2) and highest in Uttar Pradesh (27.8) against the national average of 21.8. Death rate is lowest in West Bengal (6.2) and highest in Odisha (8.5) against the national average of 7.1. Education

Madhya Pradesh has the highest gross enrolment ratio (GER) (6-13 years) in 2010-11 while Assam has the lowest. Pupil-teacher ratios in primary and middle/basic schools are the lowest in Himachal Pradesh and high in states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

NCAER State Investment Potential Index (N-SIPI):

N-SIPI, developed by NCAER, is based on five pillars such as labour, infrastructure, economic climate, political stability, and governance. The survey was undertaken in 20 states and one Union Territory, Delhi. Gujarat, Delhi and Tamil Nadu are the best places to make fresh investments in India, while Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are lagging behind.

Swachh Survekshan Survey 2017


  1. In comparison to the rankings of 2016, the top six cities- -Indore, Bhopal, Visakhapatnam, Surat, Tirupati and Vadodara– have improved their sanitation rankings.
  2. Gujarat has maximum of 12 cities among top 50 clean cities followed by Madhya Pradesh with 11 and Andhra Pradesh with eight.
  3. Uttar Pradesh�s Gonda dirtiest city, preceeded by Bhusawal in Maharashtra are the dirtiest cities according to the cleanliness survey.
  4. 50 of the 62 cities/towns surveyed in UP are ranked at 305 and below. UP�s 41 cities and towns are among the bottom 100 cities. Only saving grace is Varanasi at rank 32.
  5. 19 of 27 cities and towns surveyed in Bihar are ranked beyond 300 with best rank in the state being 147 for Biharsharif.
  6. The Quality Council of India deployed 421 assessors for on the spot assessment of 17,500 locations in 434 cities and towns. In addition to that, 55 persons were appointed to regularly monitor the survey process real time.
  7. The criteria of the rankings are as follows: 45 per cent marks for open defecation free, solid waste management, education and capacity building, another 25 per cent marks for field inspection and 30 per cent for citizen feedback. At least 18 lakh citizens across the cities gave their feedback about the sanitation in their respective cities and towns.
  8. Prime Minister Narendra Modi�s constituency Varanasi has been named India�s Fastest Moving City with more than 10 lakh population 9. In 2015 and 2016, Mysuru had topped the list of cleanest cities with Dhanbad in Jharkhad being the dirtiest.

Swachh Bharat launches Swachh Survekshan Gramin 2017

As the Swachh Bharat Mission approaches the third anniversary of its launch , the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has launched a third party verification survey report to take stock of the progress already made by the Mission in rural India. The Quality Council of India (QCI) has conducted a transparent third-party assessment of the present status of rural sanitation in all States and UTs, called Swachh Survekshan Gramin 2017. Under the Swachh Survekshan Gramin 2017, QCI surveyed 1.4 lakh rural households across 4626 villages, and found the overall toilet coverage to be 62.45%. At the time of the survey, i.e. May-June 2017, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) survey reported the coverage to be 63.73%.

The survey also observed that 91.29% of the people having access to a toilet, use it. In order to encourage States and districts to improve their Sanitation coverage and Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM), the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation will also begin ranking all districts in India. The ranking will be done based on parameters of Performance, Sustainability and Transparency.

To instill healthy competition amongst districts, they will also be given awards based on this ranking on a quarterly basis. The formula for calculating these rankings will be:

Total score (100) = Performance (50) + Sustainability (25) + Transparency (25)

The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) celebrated the week leading up to the 70th Independence Day as fiKhule Mein Shauch Se Azaadifi Week. Highlights are: 1. 24 Ganga Grams from five States, Uttarakhand (3), UP (10), Bihar (4), Jharkhand (5) and West Bengal (2) would be made Aadarsh Ganga Gram. 2. Swachhta Raths would be launched at Allahabad and in other parts of the country. Over 4.54 crore household toilets have been constructed since the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin. 2,20,104 villages, 160 districts and 5 States declared ODF. Sanitation Coverage has increased from 39% in October 2016 to 66ft in August 2017.

Written by princy

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