Article 368 of the Constitution provides for the power of the Parliament as also the method of amending the Constitution. Unless otherwise provided and also if the amending proposal does not relate to certain articles, parts, chapters, schedules as indicated in Article 368, the procedure of amendment of all the remaining Articles, including Part III of the Constitution containing the fundamental rights, (parts, chapters, and schedules including) is:
It is only for amending those provisions, as indicated in Article 368, that the ratification of not less than one-half of the States is required and not for all other amending proposals For over twenty years, the power of the Parliament, though not explicitly stated in Article 368, to amend the Constitution, including fundamental rights, was not challenged. In Golaknath v. State of Punjab’1967, the apex court held the view that the Parliament, not to speak of amending the fundamental rights, has no power to amend the Constitution, for, the decision of the Supreme Court stated that, Article 368 only gives the procedure of amendment, and not the power of the Parliament to amend the Constitution.
“The Parliament, through 24th amendment (1971) helped remove the difficulties created by the Golaknath Case. “The Parliament through 42nd amendment (1976), (despite the support given by Kesavananda case, 1973) sought to ensure its position vis-‘-vis the judiciary by having for itself the unlimited power to amend the Constitution and securing amendments beyond judicial scrutiny. But the Supreme Court, rallying behind the Kesavananda verdict, in the Minerva Mills case (1980), agreed to the Parliament’s constituent power to amend the Constitution including fundamental rights, kept the Parliament out of domain in respect of basic structures, amendments including.