Anthropology: The Scientific Study of Humans
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human societies. The word has Greek roots, with "anthropos" meaning "human" and "logia" meaning "study." The term "anthropologia," or the "study of humanity," was first used in the late 1500s, but it was not until the 1800s that it was used in its modern scientific context.
What Do Anthropologists Study?
Anthropologists study a wide range of topics related to human life and culture. This includes the study of human fossils and artifacts, the comparison of human behavior to that of other animals (particularly within the primate family), and the examination of human cultures, social structures, and communication. In short, anthropologists study everything related to human existence, both past and present.
One important method used by anthropologists is the comparative method, which involves comparing sociocultural phenomena in order to understand and explain differences and similarities between different groups of people. Examples of the comparative method might include comparing plant and animal remains found in archaeological sites to understand the diets of different civilizations, comparing cultural norms related to gift-giving in various societies, or examining voting patterns in different neighborhoods to understand how to increase voter turnout.
Early Anthropologists: Charles Darwin and Franz Boas
Two of the most well-known early anthropologists are Charles Darwin and Franz Boas. Darwin, a naturalist, is best known for his theory of evolution through natural selection, which he outlined in his book On the Origin of Species. He also wrote The Descent of Man, which discusses the evolution of the human species and how humans are related to (but also different from) other life on Earth.
Darwin's work was influential in the field of anthropology, but it was also used (and misused) to justify the idea that Africans were less evolved than whites, and thus slavery was justified. Franz Boas, often referred to as the "Father of American Anthropology," argued that behavior and social structure were not determined by biological evolution, but rather by culture. He focused on the idea that culture, not race, was the main factor in determining behavior and believed that Africans were not more primitive than Europeans because they were less developed, but rather because their culture was more primitive. Boas' work was met with significant criticism from those who supported slavery and segregation.
Subfields of Anthropology
Anthropology is a broad field that encompasses several subfields, each with its own focus and methods of study. These subfields include:
- Biological anthropology: This subfield focuses on the evolutionary history and biology of humans, including the study of human fossils and the comparison of human anatomy to that of other primates.
- Cultural anthropology: This subfield examines human cultures and societies, including their beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors.
- Linguistic anthropology: This subfield studies language and communication, including how language shapes and is shaped by culture.
- Archaeology: This subfield studies the material remains of past human societies, including artifacts, architecture, and landscapes.
Importance of Anthropology
Anthropology plays a vital role in helping us understand the complexity of human societies and cultures. It helps us to see the world from different perspectives and to appreciate the diversity of human experience. By studying the past, we can gain a better understanding of the present and make more informed decisions about the future.
In addition to its academic value, anthropology has practical applications as well. Anthropologists often work with communities to address issues such as cultural preservation, sustainable development, and human rights. They may also work in fields such as marketing, education, or international development, using their understanding of cultural differences to inform their work.
Careers in Anthropology
Anthropologists may work in a variety of settings, including universities, museums, government agencies, and non-profit organizations. Some may work as professors, conducting research and teaching courses. Others may work in museums, where they may be responsible for curating exhibits or conducting research on artifacts. Anthropologists may also work in government agencies, where they may be involved in policy development or community outreach.
To become an anthropologist, individuals typically need at least a bachelor's degree in anthropology or a related field. Many also go on to earn a master's or doctoral degree in anthropology.
Questions for UPSC Mains
- Analyze the impact of Charles Darwin's and Franz Boas' work on the field of anthropology and how their ideas have been received and used (or misused) in history.
- Discuss the practical applications of anthropology with' the perspective of a civil servant.
- Critically discuss how understanding of cultural differences inform the work of an anthropologist in fields such as marketing, education, or international development.