Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

Evolving the design of the wage employment programmes to more effectively fight poverty, the Central Government formulated the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in 2005. With its legal framework and rights-based approach, MGNREGA provides employment to those who demand it and is a paradigm shift from earlier programmes. Notified on September 7, 2005, MGNREGA aims at enhancing livelihood security by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

The Act covered 200 districts in its first phase, implemented on February 2, 2006, and was extended to 130 additional districts in 2007-08. All the remaining rural areas have been notified with effect from April, 2008. During the FY 2011-12, the scheme has provided employment to around 5 crore households through about 74 lakh workers with more than 212 crore days of employment being generated at a total expenditure about of ` 37650 crore. The average wage rate per day has increased from ` 65 in 2006-07 to about ` 117 in 2010-11.

Pradhan Mantri Sadak Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadark Yojna (PMGSY) was launched on 25th December, 2000 with the objective of providing All-weather roads (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures, which is operable throughout the year), to the eligible unconnected habitations in the rural areas. The Programme envisages connecting all habitations having population of 500 persons and above (as per 2001 census) in plain areas and in respect of the Hill States (North-East, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand), desert Areas (as identified in the Desert Development Programme) the Tribal (Schedule V) areas and in the Selected Tribal and Backward Districts under Integrated Action Plan (IAP) as identified by Ministry of Home Affairs/ Planning Commission, having population of 250 person and above (as per 2001 census).

In addition, it also has an element of upgradation, though it is not central to the Programme. A total of 66,802 habitations were proposed to be covered under Bharat Nirman Phase I. Subsequently, based on ground verification by States, 63,940 unconnected habitations were found eligible to be connected under the Programme. Upto May, 2012, 45,531 (71ft) habitations have been connected by constructing 1,44,018 km. (60ft) rural roads. In addition, 2,38,162 km. existing roads have been upgraded/renewed. Project proposals for 1,13,156 road works measuring 4,44,710 km. and valued at ` 1,28,736 crore have been cleared by the Ministry of Rural Development to the States. An amount of ` 1,00,416 crore has been released to the States/UT/Agencies, 89,760 (79ft) road works measuring 3,54,958 km. (80ft) have been completed incurring an expenditure of ` 92,738 crore (92ft). During the year 2011-12, project proposals for ` 8846.21 crores sent by States have also been cleared by the Ministry.

Bharat Nirman Programme

Rural Housing is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman Programme. Under Bharat Nirman Programme Phase 1,60 lakh houses were envisaged to be constructed through Indira Awaas Yojana all over the country during the four years, i.e., from 2005-06 to 2008-09. Against this target, 71-76 lakh houses were constructed with an expenditure of ` 21720.39 cores. The target for the next five year period starting from the year 2009-10 had been doubled to 120 lakh houses. During the first three year of the Bharat Nirman Programme Period-Phase-II. If, approx. 85 lakh houses have already been constructed

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) was launched on 3rd December 2005 with the objective of reforms and fast track development of cities across the country. Its focus was on bringing about Indian Polity and Governance�141 efficiency in urban infrastructure, service delivery mechanisms, community participation and accountability of Urban Local Bodies and Parastatal agencies towards citizens. The duration of the Mission is seven years from 2005-06 to 2011-12, during the period the Mission seeks to ensure sustainable development of select cities. Thes ubcomponent of Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) for identified 65 major cities and the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) for all other cities and towns are implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development. The main thrust of both UIG and UIDSSMT are support for urban infrastructure projects relating to water supply including sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, etc.

Written by princy

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