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A volcano is a sudden and abrupt explosion in the crust of the earth through which magma, gas, dust, smoke and solid material is ejected. The hot molten magma below ..

Geomorphic Processes

The earth’s surface constantly keeps on changing under the inuence of a number of forces which are divide d in two broad categories known as internal or Endo genetic forces ..

Landforms of Second Order (Mountains, Plateaus and Plains)

Introduction Major landforms which are found on continents and ocean floors are known as landforms of second order. Mountains, plateaus and plains are the major landforms found on the continents. ..


A relatively at and a low-lying land surface with least difference between its highest and lowest points is called plain. Depending on their formation plains can be divided into following ..


The surface of the earth is not uniform but irregular and is marked by extreme contrasts. On one hand we have loy mountains while on the other hand wend deep ..


A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. According to petrologists (scientists who study rocks), “Rocks may simply be defined as all those materials which form the crust ..


The term lithosphere refers to the solid layer of the earth which consists of rocks of various types. It rests on the top of the mantle and contains sial and ..


A lake is a large inland body of water which is surrounded by land and is not connected with sea except by rivers. Lakes are formed in a number of ..

Rivers and Lakes

Rivers and lakes are water bodies and are often excluded from studies of hydrosphere. They are of much smaller size than the oceans and seas and are scattered in different ..

Effects of Ocean Currents

Introduction Ocean currents have a large number of direct and indirect effects. Western margins of the continents within the tropics (except near the equator) are washed by cold currents which ..