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Specific Fundamental Rights

The original Constitution had seven fundamental rights, but as a result of the 44th amendment in 1978, right to property was deleted from the list of the fundamental rights, and ..

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

“There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State (Article 16(1); No citizen shall, on grounds only ..

Abolition of Titles

No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. [Article 18(1)]; No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. [Article ..

Freedom of Speech and Expression

19(1)(a), being essential for a democratic government, means the right to express one’s own opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, (i.e., right to freedom of press as has ..

Freedom of profession, occupation, trade or business

Under Article 19(1)(g) and 19(6), is guaranteed to every citizen and is restricted and regulated by authority of law. “The right to carry on business does not mean right to ..

Procedure of Amendment of the Constitution

Being the most lengthy constitution, the Constitution of India has provisions of all sorts—important, less important and even unimportant; significant; transitional and even provisional; broader, larger and even smaller: enduring, ..

Some Major Changing Trends of the Indian Constitution

Every written constitution is the result of certain times. As times change, new trends changing situations, problems arise, which bring to forth issues which necessitate newer solutions and point to ..

Amendment Process of the Constitution

India’s Constitution is unique in the sense that it is rigid as well as flexible, i.e. partly rigid and partly flexible: neither the whole of it is completely rigid nor ..

Amendments through the State Governments

The amendments through the state governments fall under two categories: (a) some of the provisions of the Constitution can be amended at the initiative of the State, and (b) some ..

Constitutional Amendments

A brief description of the amendments made in the Constitution (till August, 2014, only 98 amendments have been made), is given here under: Sl. No. of Amendments Enforced since Major ..