The Parliament: Committees
The two Houses of the Parliament work through committees. As per India, 2014 reference journal, the committees are: Broadly, Parliamentary Committees are of two kindsï¿½ Standing Committees and ad hoc Committees. The former are elected or appointed every year or periodically and their work goes on, more or less, on a continuous basis. The latter are appointed on an ad hoc basis as the need arises and they cease to exist as soon as they complete the task assigned to them. Standing Committees: Among the Standing Committees, the three Financial Committeesï¿½Committees on Estimates, Public Accounts and Public Undertakingsï¿½constitute a distinct group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Government expenditure and performance. While members of the Rajya Sabha are associated with Committees on Public Accounts and Public Undertakings, the members of the Committee on Estimates are drawn entirely from the Lok Sabha.
The Estimates Committee with only Lok Sabha (30) members reports on ï¿½what economies, improvement in organisation, efficiency or administrative reform consistent with policy underlying the estimatesï¿½ may be effected. It also examines whether the money is well laid out within limits of the policy implied in the estimates and suggests the form in which estimates shall be presented to Parliament. The Public Accounts Committee a joint committee (15 Lok Sabha, 7 Rajya Sabha members) scrutinizes appropriation and finance accounts of the Government and reports of the Comptroller and AuditorGeneral. It ensures that public money is spent in accordance Indian Polity and Governance?101 with Parliamentï¿½s decisions and calls attention to cases of waste, extravagance, loss or nugatory expenditure. The Committee on Public Undertakings, a joint committee (15 Lok Sabha, 7 Rajya Sabha member) examines reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General, if any.
It also examines whether public undertakings are being run efficiently and are being managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices. Besides these three Financial Committees, the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabha (15 members) recommended setting-up of 17 Department Related Standing Committees (DRSCs). Accordingly, 17 Department Related Standing Committees were set up on 8th April 1993. In July 2004, rules were amended to provide for the constitution of seven more such committees, thus raising the number of DRSCs from 17 to 24. The functions of these Committees are:
(a) to consider the Demands for Grants of various Ministries/Departments of Government of India and make reports to the House;
(b) to examine such Bills as are referred to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make reports thereon;
(c) to consider Annual Reports of ministries/ departments and make reports thereon; and
(d) to consider policy documents presented to the Houses, if refereed to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make reports thereon.
Other Standing Committees in each House, divided in terms of their functions, are
(i) Committees to Inquire:
(a) Committee on Petitions (15 Lok Sabha members) examines petitions on bills and on matters of general public interest and also entertains representations on matters concerning subjects in the Union List; and
(b) Committee of Privileges (15 Lok Sabha) examines any question of privilege referred to it by the House or Speaker/Chairman;
(ii) Committees to Scrutinise:
(a) Committee on Government Assurances (15 Lok Sabha) keeps track of all the assurances, promises, undertakings, etc,; given by Ministers in the House and pursues them till they are implemented;
(b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation (15 Lok Sabha) scrutinises and reports to the House whether the power to make regulations, rules, sub-rules, bye-laws, etc;, conferred by the Constitution or Statutes is being properly exercised by the delegated authorities; and (c) Committee on Papers Laid on the Table examines all papers laid on the table of the House by Ministers, other than statutory notifications and orders which come within the purview of the Committee on Subordinate Legislation, to see whether there has been compliance with the provisions of the Constitution, Act, rule or regulation under which the paper has been laid;
(iii) Committees relating to the day-to-day business of the House:
(a) Business Advisory Committee (15 Lok Sabha) recommends allocation of time for items of Government and other business to be brought before the Houses;
(b) Committee on Private Membersï¿½ Bills and Resoultions (15 members) of the Lok Sabha classifies and allocates time to Bills introduced by private members, recommends allocation of time for discussion on private membrsï¿½ resolutions and exmines Constitution amendment bills before their introduction by private members in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha does not have such a committee. It is the Business Advisory Committee of that House which recommends allocation of time for discussion on stage or stages of private membersï¿½ bills and resolutions;
(c) Rules Committee considers matters of procedure and conduct of business in the House and recommends amendments or addition to the Rules; and
(d) Committee on Absence of Members from the Sittings of the House of the Lok Sabha considers all applications from members for leave or absence from sittings of the House. There is no such Committee in the Rajya Sabha. Applications from members for leave or absence are considered by the Rajya Sabha itself;
(iv) Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
On which members from both Houses (20 Lok Sabha, 10 Rajya Sabha) serve, considers all matters relating to the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Schedule Tribes which come within the purview of the Union Government and keeps a watch whether constitutional safeguards in respect of these classes are properly implemented;
(v) Committees concerned with the provisions of facilities of members:
(a) General Purposes Committee considers and advises Speaker/Chairman on matters concerning affairs of the House, which do not appropriately fall within the purview of any other Parliamentary Committee; and (b) House Committee deals with residential accommodation and other amenities for members;
(vi) Joint Committee on Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament
Constituted under the Salary, Allowances and Pensions of Members of Parliament Act, 1954, apart from framing rules for regulating payment of salaries, allowances and pensions to Members of Parliament, also framers rules in respect of amenities like medical, housing, telephone, postal, constituency and secretarial facility;
(vii) Joint Committee on Offices of Profit (10 Lok Sabha, 5 Rajya Sabha)
Examines the composition and character of committees and other bodies appointed by the Central and State government and Union Territories Administrations and recommends what offices ought to or ought not to disqualify a person from being chosen as a member of either House of Parliament;
(viii) The Library Committee consisting of members from both Houses
Considers matters concerning the Library of Parliament
(ix) On 29 April 1997, a Committee on Empowerment of Women (20 Lok Sabha, 10 Rajya Sabha) with members from both the Houses was constituted with a view to securing, among other things, status, dignity and equality for women in all fields;
(x) On 4 March 102?Indian Polity and Governance 1997, the Ethics Committee of the Rajya Sabha was constituted. The Ethics Committee of the Lok Sabha was constituted on 16 May, 2000.
Ad hoc Committees:
Such Committees may be broadly classified under two heads:
(a) committees which are constituted from time to time, either by the two Houses on a motion adopted in that behalf or by Speaker/Chairman to inquire into and report on specific subjects, (e.g., Committees on food management in Parliament House Complex, Committee on installation of portraits/ statutes of National leaders and Parliamentarians in Parliament House Complex, Committee on Security in Parliament Complex, Committee on MPLADS, Committee on Railway convention, etc.) and
(b) Select or Joint Committees on Bills which are appointed to consider and report on a particular Bill. These committees are distinguishable from the other ad hoc committee as much as they are concerned with Bills and the procedure to be followed by them as laid down in the Rules of Procedure and Directions by the Speaker/Chairman.
Written by princy