Dependency Ratio Age-wise population shares reveal another important aspect of the lives of peopleï¿½dependency. Both children and the elderly are dependent on the able and adult population. Overall, the young dependency ratioï¿½number of children aged up to 15 dependent on every 1,000 members of the working age populationï¿½has declined from 621 in 2001 to 510 in 2011. This is a direct consequence of declining number of children. At the other end of life, the old dependency ratio has increased from 131 in 2001 to 142 in 2011, in accordance with the growing elderly population. If we add up both young and old, in 2001, 752 people were dependent on every 1,000 persons in the working age population of 15 to 59 years.
Compared to that, in 2011, this ratio has come down to 652. Across religious communities, Muslims have the highest total dependency ratio of 748 compared to the lowest ratio for Jains which is just 498. For Hindus, the ratio is 640. All these ratios have declined since 2001. In the next two / three decades, Indiaï¿½s population will grow and large bulk of this increase will be between the ages of 15 and 64, the so-called working age population. The proportion of working age population in the age group of 15-64 years in total population was 62.9 per cent in 2006 but is expected to rise to 68.4 per cent in 2026. This huge boost terms the commitment of government towards voluntary and informed choice and consent of citizens while availing of reproductive health care services, and continuation of the target free approach in administering family planning services. The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies during the next decade, to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India, and to achieve net replacement levels (TFR) by 2010. It is based upon the need to simultaneously address issues of child survival, maternal health, and contraception, while increasing outreach and coverage of a comprehensive package of reproductive and child health services by government, industry and the voluntary nongovernment sector, working in partnership.
The immediate objective of the NPP 2000 is to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. The medium-term objective is to bring the TFR to replacement levels by 2010, through vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies. The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045, at a level consistent with the requirements of sustainable economic growth, social development, and environmental protection. As per the latest World Population Prospects released by United Nations (revision 2015), the estimated population of India will be 1419 million approximately whereas Chinaï¿½s population will be approximately 1409 million, by 2022.
In spite of the perceptible decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) from 3.6 in 1991 to 2.3 in 2013, India is yet to achieve replacement level of 2.1. Twenty-four states/UTs have already achieved replacement level of TFR by 2013, while states like UP and Bihar with large population base still have TFR of 3.1 and 3.4 respectively. The other states like Jharkhand (TFR 2.7), Rajasthan (TFR 2.8), Madhya Pradesh (TFR 2.9), and Chhattisgarh (TFR 2.6) continue to have higher levels of fertility and contribute to the growth of population. The percentage decadal growth rate of the country has declined significantly from 21.5ft for the period 1991-2001 to 17.7ft during 2001-2011.
New Interventions under Family Planning Programme:
- Scheme for Home delivery of contraceptives by ASHAs at doorstep of beneficiaries: The govt. has launched a scheme to utilize the services of ASHA to deliver contraceptives at the doorstep of beneficiaries.
- Scheme for ASHAs to ensure spacing in births: Under this scheme, services of ASHAs to be utilized for counselling newly married couples to ensure delay of 2 years in birth after marriage and couples with 1 child to have spacing of 3 years after the birth of 1st child.
- Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh/National Population Stabilization Fund has adopted the following strategies as a population control measure:- Prerna Strategy:- JSK has launched this strategy for helping to push up the age of marriage of girls and delay in first child and spacing in second child the birth of children in the interest of health of young mothers and infants. The couple who adopt this strategy awarded suitably. This helps to change the mindsets of the community.
- Santushti Strategy:- Under this strategy, Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh, invites private sector gynaecologists and vasectomy surgeons to conduct sterilization operations in Public Private Partnership mode. The private hospitals/nursing home who achieved target to 10 or more are suitably awarded as per strategy.
- National Helpline: – JSK also running a call centers for providing free advice on reproductive health, family planning, maternal health and child health etc. Toll free no. is 1800116555.
- Advocacy & IEC activities:- JSK as a part of its awareness and advocacy efforts on population stabilization, has established networks and partnerships with other ministries, development partners, private sectors, corporate and professional bodies for spreading its activities through electronic media, print media, workshop, walkathon, and other multi-level activities etc. at the national, state, district and block level.
Socio-economic Profile of States and Interstate Comparisons
Bihar has the highest decadal (2001-11) growth rate of population (25.07 per cent), while Kerala has the lowest rate (4.86 per cent). Some big states like Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh also have high decadal growth of population.
In 2011, Kerala has the highest sex ratio with 1084 females per 1000 males, followed by Tamil Nadu (995), while Haryana is at the bottom (877). Interestingly, the sex ratios in some of the developed states like Gujarat and Maharashtra are also low at 918 and 925 respectively.
Written by princy