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The Vijayanagar Kingdom

The kingdom of Vijayanagar was established by two brothers – Harihara and Bukka Rai-in the year 1336. They were feudatories of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. When the kingdom of Warangal was overrun by ..

The Peshwas

The period from 1713-1761 was when the peshwas controlled the Marathas Empire. In 1713, Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath as the peshwa or chief minister. He was an able minister and helped Shahu in ..

The Marathas

The Marathas were minor chieftains serving in the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda. When these kingdoms became weak, the Marathas declared their independence. They began to control the region around modern Pune. Soon, ..

The Rise of Independent Kingdoms

Punjab under the Sikhs The Sikhs became a strong political and military force under Guru Gobind Singh. He organised the Sikhs into a disciplined military group called the Khalsa (meaning ‘the pure’). ..

Later Mughals

Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712) Bahadur Shah I ruled for few years. He tried to win over the Rajputs by recognising Ajit Singh as the ruler of Jodhpur. He also tried to appease ..

Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.)

The last of the ‘great Mughals’, Aurangzeb ruled for almost 50 years. His empire covered nearly the whole of India. The reign of Aurangzeb can be divided into two phases: ..

The Mughal Empire

Akbar (1556-1605) Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar was one of the greatest rulers of India. He is regarded as the real consolidator of the Mughal Empire. Akbar became the king in the year 1556, ..

The Sur Empire

The Sur Empire lasted for only 15 years. The most famous ruler of the dynasty was Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545 A.D.) Sher Shah Suri was the son of an ..

Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526 A.D.)

Before the Lodis all the rulers of the Sultanate were of Turkish origin. The Lodis, however, were Afghans. Bahlul Lodi (1451-1489 A.D.) The first Lodi ruler was Bahlul Lodi. He tried to ..

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451 A.D.)

The Sayyid Sultans ruled for a relatively short period. There were four Sayyid kings. Khizr Khan Sayyid (1414-1421 A.D.) Khizr Khan was the governor of Multan under Firoz Shah Tughluq. After Firoz’s death, he ..