The National Movement Context

“The growth and the development of the national movement in India went a long way to develop certain values and ethos, which contributed a lot to the constitution-making of India. A brief survey of our liberation movement leading to independence of the country in 1947 can be summed up as under:

(i) “The socio-religious reform movements during the 19th century India played a significant role in preparing ground for the growth of nationalism in the country. “These movements were basically attempts to eradiate social evils introduced through numerous religions as practised in India. “The Atmiya Sabha (1815), the Brahmo Samaj (1828) by Rammohan Roy, the Dharma Sabha (1829) by Radhakant Dev, the Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839) by Debendranath Tagore (all these were founded in Calcutta), (though Keshab Chandra Sen and Anand Mohan Bose established, the Brahmo Samaj of India and the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in 1866 and 1878 respectively in Calcutta). “The Nirankaris and the Namdharies came up by Dayal Das and Ram Singh in 1840 and 1857 in Punjab. “The Manav Dharma Sabha was founded by Durgaram Mancharam in Surat in the year 1844. In Bombay, the Paramhansa Mandali, the Prarthna Samaj, the Arya Samaj were founded by Dadoba Pandurang, Atmaram Pandurang, Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1849, 1867 and 1875 respectively. “The Veda Samai was established in Madras in 1864 by Sridharalu Naidu. Darul-ul-Ulam was established in 1866 at Deoband. Though the Theosophical Society was the diversely scattered and segregated people of India founded in New York by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Col. together to launch their freedom struggle successfully. H.S. Olcott in 1875, it became popular in India as well.

In one word, we may say that the British were able to the Poona Deccan Education Society came up in 1884 transform our political culture by G.G. Agarkar. In Aligarh, the Aligarh movement And yet, the British colonial state was both authoritarian became popular by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1886 and autocratic. The laws were few but were largely while in Lucknow, the Lucknow Nadwah-ul-Ulama was harsh and mostly secretive; the administration was founded by Maulana Shibli Numani in 1894. In 1887 rules-oriented but the governance was repressive and Shivnarayan Agnihotri founded the Lahore Deva Samaj oppressive; the civil servants and the police were in Lahore while Ramakrishna Mission was established disciplined lot but enjoyed a large measure of absolute by Swami Vivekanand in 1897. These movements powers; the concepts of equality of all before law and helped in one way or the other to regenerate India’s past, the rule of law were introduced but the courts and the eradicate the social evils, spread education, relieve the administration favoured only the Europeans, especially practiced religions of their dogmatic rituals, and went a the British; civil liberties were assured but were denied to long way to create awakening among the Indians, which the Indians in the name of law and order; the railways, contributed to the growth of nationalism in the country.

The postal services, roads were, indeed, built but all were

(ii) Numerous other factors too contributed in the evolution to serve the ruling elite. And when they left India, they of Indian nationalism. The historical researches done left behind, as Rabindranath Tagore had said, “a waste mostly by the English and the European scholars such of mud and lth” —a poorer India inhabited by the poor as Alexander Cunningham, William Jones, Max Muller, Indians.    A.B. Keith developed, among the Indians, a sense of II (C): The National Movement Context pride in their ancient civilization and the rich heritage, imbuing in them a spirit of nationalism. The spread of the growth and the development of the national movement in Western education did no less a task in the growth of India’s nationalism. The uniform system of education India went a long way to develop certain values and ethos, which as also the English language throughout the country, contributed a lot to the constitution-making of India. A brief says K.M. Panikar, produced among the Indians the survey of our liberation movement leading to independence of like-mindedness, the community of thought, feelings the country in 1947 can be summed up as under: and ideas, contributing, in the process to the unity

  • the socio-religious reform movements during the 19th among them, so essential for the development of the century India played a significant role in preparing sense of nationalism.
  • The British imperialistic designs ground for the growth of nationalism in the country constituted another factor, which led not only to the these movements were basically attempts to eradiate economic exploitation of the country but created a social evils introduced through numerous religions as situation of poverty, backwardness and unemployment practised in India.
  • The Atmiya Sabha (1815), the Brahmo Discontentment and disaffection against the British rule Samaj (1828) by Rammohan Roy, the Dharma Sabha kept intensifying among the Indians, leading them to (1829) by Radhakant Dev, the Tattvabodhini Sabha conclude that the British rule was detrimental to the (1839) by Debendranath Tagore (all these were founded very survival of the Indians.
  • The British sense of arrogance

“The British sense of arrogance and the Raj’s oppressive—repressive policies made the natives hostile against the colonial rule. “The contribution of the Indian press and literature towards the growth of nationalism in India was no less significant. “The dailies such as the Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Indian Mirror, the Hindu, the Kesari, the Bengali and the like had a great patriotic influence on the minds of the Indians. “The writings of the Indian literary scholars like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s Bande Mataram became the unifying spirit around which the Indians rallied closer to one another. R.C. Majumdar, the historian, indicates one more factor responsible for the evolution of nationalism. He says : “”The strong current of nationalist ideas which passed over the whole of Europe must have stimulated the growth of nationalism in India.

“Among these ideas, those relating to the 1789 French revolution, the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 in different
regions of Europe, can well be mentioned. “The growth of the middle class, the English—educated class, well—
versed with the social and political ideas, provided the much-needed leadership to the nationalist movement in India. “The leaders of the Indian National Congress, established in 1885, belonged mainly to this category of the middle class. Of the 15 Presidents of the Indian National Congress, for example, during the first fifteen years, ten were lawyers, mostly educated in England.

(iii) “Though the leadership of the Indian National Congress played a significant role in launching the liberation movement, there had been numerous other political activities, which were going on in India before the formation of the Congress in 1885 . “The British India Society of 1843 helped arouse the political consciousness among the people; amalgamating later into the British Indian Association; the British Indian Association, founded in 1851, fought for political concessions for the British Indian subjects, seeking the introduction of the legislative councils in India; the India League, established in 1875, had the objective of stimulating sense of nationalism among the Indians; a year later came up the Indian Association of 1876 which attempt to seek the formation of a public opinion body, the unification of all the Indian races, and the promotion of the friendly relations between the Hindus and the Muslims. All the above organizations had started in Bengal. Dadabhai Naoroji, together with Ferozerhah Mehta and Badruddin Tyabji, made efforts to give the Bombay Presidency Association a fresh life while Poona Sarvajnaik Sabha helped awaken political consciousness among the people of the region. “The 1883 National Conference made the formation of the Indian National Congress possible.

iv) “The birth of the Indian National Congress, an organization of all-India character, formed as the Indian National Union in 1884 and whose name was changed, at the stance of Dadabhai Naoriji, to the Indian National Congress in 1885, was an event of great significance. A retired member of Indian Civil Service, Allan Octavian Hume, had taken the initiative of forming the Congress. “The first session of the Congress (attended by 72 delegates) was held at Bombay, from 28 to 31 December, 1885 with W.C. Bonnerjee as its first President. “The four objects of the Congress, as elaborated in the Congress session were :

(1) “The promotion of personal intimacy and friendship;

(2) “The eradication of all possible prejudices among the people;

(3) “The authoritative record of the matured opinions of the educated classes; and

(4) “The determination of the lines, during the next twelve months, for native politicians to labour in the public interest.

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