Mangrove Forest and Coral Reef

Low muddy coasts in tropical and some subtropical areas are often home to tangled masses of trees known as mangroves. These large flowering plants are never completely submerged, but because of their intimate association with ocean they are considered marine plants. They thrive in sediment-rich lagoons, bays, and estuaries of the Indo-Pacific, tropical Africa, and tropical Americas. The distribution of mangrove largely depends on temperature, precipitation, sediments, salinity of water, and ocean currents.

Major Mangroves of India

Mangrove State
1. Bhitarkanika Odisha
2. Coondapur Karnataka
3. Goa Goa
4. Godavari Delta Andhra Pradesh
5. Gulf of Kachchh Gujarat
6. Krishna Estuary Andhra Pradesh
7. Loringa Andhra Pradesh
8. Mahanadi Delta Odisha
9. North Andaman and Nicobar Andaman and Nicobar Islands
10. Pichavaram Tamil Nadu
11. Point Calimere Tamil Nadu
12. Sundarbans West Bengal

Coral Reefs

Coral reef is a linear mass of calcium carbonate (aragonite and calcite) assembled from coral organisms, algae, mollusks, worms, etc. In India, there are four coral reef areas which have been identified for intensive conservation and management. These coral reef areas include:

(i) Gulf of Mannar, (ii) Gulf of Kachchh (iii) Lakshdweep, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The National Coral Reef Research Centre has been established at Port Blair (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

Environment and Ecology