Wildlife Conservation

India has about 91,000 species of animals and 45,600 species of plants. The Central Government provides technical and financial support to the States/UTs for wildlife conservation under the various Centrally Sponsored Schemes�Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats, Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Project Gharial, etc. The protected area network in India includes 100 National Parks and 515 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 39 Tiger Reserves, 21 Bird sanctuaries, 18 Biosphere Reserves, 43 Conservation Reserves, and four Community Reserves. The objective of the Scheme is to provide financial and technical assistance to the States/UTs to conserve wildlife resources. The scheme supports various activities aimed at the conservation of wildlife that inter-alia includes habitat improvement practices, infrastructure development, economic activities, anti-poaching activities, training, capacity building, census of wildlife, etc.

Tiger Projects

The Central Sponsored Scheme �Project Tiger� was launched in April, 1973 with the objective to �ensure maintenance of a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values, and to preserve for all times, areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people�.

National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries

A national park is a relatively large area of one or several ecosystems that are not being materially altered by human exploitation and occupation. Here, plant and animal species, geomorphical sites and habitats for special scientific, education and recreation are preserved. India�s first National Park was established in 1935 as �Hailey Park� known at present as Jim Corbett National Park. In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted, which provides the main legal framework for conservation and protection of wildlife in India. This Act has been comprehensively amended in 1991, making punishments more stringent and has also made provisions for the protection of specified plant species and conservation of endangered species of wild animals. The important National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries have been described briefly in the following.

Anshi National Park (1987)

Located near the city of Dandeli in the Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka along the border of Goa, it is a habitat of Bengal tigers, black panthers and elephants. It has moist deciduous forests. The species of flora include true cinnamon, bamboo, bauhinia, eucalyptus, silver oak, teak and jamba.

Balpakhram (1988)

Located near Tura the Headquarters of the Garo Hills (Meghalaya), Balpakhram is a National Park. The highest peak Balpakhram is often referred as the �abode of perpetual winds� as well as the land of �land of spirits�. The main fauna of this National Park includes wild water-bulo, red panda, elephant, several species of cats, monkeys, baboons and barking deer. It is also famous for pitcher plant and many medicinal herbs. The National Park is full of sprawling vegetation consisting of sub-tropical and deciduous trees.

Bandhavgarh National Park (1968)

Located in the Umaria District of Madhya Pradesh, it sprawls over an area of 105 km2. It has the highest density of Bengal-tigers in India. The park has a large breeding population of leopards, and various species of deer. It also has the white tigers. The white tiger, Mohan, is now stuffed and on display in the palace of the Maharaja of Rewa. Rising mining activities around the park are putting the tigers at risk. Among other species are sambar, barking- deer nilgai, gaur etc.

Bandipur National Park (1974)

Located about 80 km from the city of Mysore in Chamarajanagar District of Karnataka, it was once a private hunting reserve of the Maharaja of Mysore. At present, it is upgraded as Bandipur Tiger Reserve. Bandipur supports a wide range of timber trees including teak, rosewood, sandalwood, Indian laurel, Indian kino tree, giant clumping bamboo and Grewia- tiliaefolia. In addition to these, there are kadam tree, Indian gooseberry, axelwood, golden shower tree, satinwood, black cutch, etc.

The fauna of the National Park includes tigers, leopards, Indian elephant, gaur, chital, sambhar, sloth bear, four-horned antelope, gray-langur, wild-boar and muntjac. The main birds include buzzards, red-headed vultures, Indian vultures, ower-peckers, hoppoes, Indian rollers, brown showl, crested serpent eagle, bee-eaters and kingfisher. The main reptiles are cobra, python, rat-snake, muggers, monitor lizards, Indian chameleon and ying lizards.

Bannerghatta National Park (1974)

Located near the city of Banglore (Karnataka), it is a popular tourist destination with a zoo, a pet corner, an animal rescue centre and a buttery enclosure. The main fauna includes sandalwood, neem, arjun, tamarind, bamboo and Eucalyptus. Thelephants, gaur, leopard, jackal, wild boar, sloth bear, sambar, chital, hippopotamus spotted deer, common langur, procupine, hare, monitor- lizard, cobras, krait and zebra are important.

Betla National Park (1989)

Located in the Latehar District (Jharkhand) of the Chotanagpur Plateau, the Betla National Park has vast areas of vegetation of tropical wet evergreen forests in the lower reaches (moist and dry) deciduous forests in the middle and temperate alpine forests in the upper reaches. The main species inclu desal, mahua, bamboo and grasses. It is famous for bison, elephants, tigers and leopards. Among other wild animals hyena, panther, sloth bear and wolf are common. Other animals include deer, sambhar, four-horned antelope, nilgai, kakar, civet, porcupine and mongoose.

Bhadra Tiger Reserve (1974)

Located in the Western Ghats in the state of Goa, it is famous for the tropical evergreen forests and moist deciduous forests. The main fauna of the sanctuary includes Bengal �tiger, black panther, leopard, barking deer, macaque, langur, civet, ying squirrel, giant squirrel, gaur, mouse deer, porcupine, slender loris, sambar, spotted deer and wild dog. In addition to these, there are emerald dove, blue-bird, greater Indian hornbill, black woodpecker, grey-headed myna, jungle fowl, yellow bulbul and kingsher. The Dudhsagar waterfall is a tiered waterfall located on the Mandvi River at the Karnataka border in the south western part of the park. Drango, emerald dove, fairy bluebird, hornbill woodpacker, grey-headed myna jungle fowl, and bulbul are important.

Bhagwan Mahavir Sanctuary and Mollem National Park (1978)

Situated near the town of Molem, it is a sanctuary and National Park in Goa. It has several important temples of the Kadamba Dynasty and Dudhsagar Waterfalls. It is the home of nomadic buffalo herders known as Dhangar tribe. This National Park contains deciduous and moist deciduous forests. The predominant species are Terminalia and Dalbergia. The forest canopy is almost closed and the availability of grass is very limited. Wild mammals include: black panther, barking deer, gaur, Malabar giant squirrel, mouse deer, pangolin, procupine, slender loris, sambar, spotted deer, wild boar and wild dog.

Written by princy

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply