Global Cooling

(A Contradictory Opinion)

As discussed above, there is a strong scientific consensus about global warming, its causes and consequences of climatic change, but there is a group of scientists from the USA and the Netherlands who believe that such theories are only hypotheses which have not been proved. These researchers suggest that emissions which produce the greenhouse effect may not be the main cause of global warming. The future climate is not only unknown but impossible to predict within the relevant limits for the implementation of rules; the models used do not adequately describe insolation, radiation, clouds, vapors, aerosols, and ocean currents.

The supporters of the global cooling opine that in near future there will be global cooling, leading to Ice-Age. The global cooling hypothesis is based on volcanic eruptions. During the last three decades, there had been volcanic eruptions of serious magnitudes which pumped huge quantities of ash and dust into the troposphere and stratosphere. The El-Chichon eruption of Mexico in 1982, sent a cloud of sulphuric acid and ash about 25 km into the atmosphere within 21 days the cloud had encircled the globe. This resulted in the increase albedo and decrease in atmospheric temperature by about 0.5oC.

The largest eruption of the last century was Pinatubo in Philippines (1991) which caused significant global temperature effect. Similar volcanic eruptions took place in Iceland in 2010 and 2011 when the dust and sulphuric acid particles reached the countries of North-West Europe and increased the rate of albedo. This change in radiation lowered the average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere from 0.5oC to 1oC and about half of that amount in the Southern Hemisphere.

Another potential cooling effect was postulated by Paul Crutzen (a Dutch atmosphere scientist) and John Birks in �The atmosphere After a Nuclear War: Twilight at Noon�. Their study published in the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences publication Ambio in June 1982, launched an avalanche of scientific analysis, assessment and general conmations. The Nuclear Winter Hypothesis, as it has come to known, now encompasses a whole range of ecological, biological and climatic impacts, associated with detonation of relatively small number of nuclear warheads within the biosphere. Resulting urban res and re storms would produce such a pall of insolation-obscuring smoke that surface heating would be drastically reduced. Temperature would drop by about 25oC and perhaps more in the mid-latitudes. This potential global impact of modern warfare would literally affect all the species of the earth ecosystems.

New Concepts In Ecology

Ecocide

The term ecocide can be used to refer to any large-scale destruction of the natural environment or over-consumption of critical non-renewable resources. In 1969, it was used to described for the murder of environment. The ecocide is a term for a substance that kills enough species in an ecosystem to disrupt its structure and function. Another example would be a high concentration of pesticide due to spillage. In brief ecocide has been defined as the extensive destruction, damage to or loss of ecosystem(s) of a given territory, whether by human agency or by other causes, to such an extent that peaceful enjoyment by the inhabitants of that territory has been severely diminished.

U.S. The environmental theorist and activist Patrick Hossay argues that the human species is committing ecocide, via industrial civilization�s effects on the global environment. Much of the modern environmental movement stems from this belief as a precept. Thus at the heart of the ecocide issue are practical and moral questions: is human activity destroying the ecological support system necessary for our own survival?

Looking at the rapid degradation of environment, in 1996, Canadian/Australian lawyer Mark Gray proposed an international crime of ecocide, based on established international environmental and human rights law. He demonstrated that states, and arguably individuals and organizations, causing or permitting harm to the natural environment on a massive scale breach a duty of care owed to humanity in general. He proposed that such breaches, where deliberate, reckless or negligent, be identified as ecocide where they entail serious, and extensive or lasting, ecological damage.

In April 2010, a UK Lawyer Polly Higgins proposed to the United Nations that ecocide be recognized as an international Crime Against Peace alongside Genocide, Crime of Humanity, War Crimes and Crimes of Aggression, triable at the International Criminal Court.

Institutionalism, Global Commons and Global Governance

To establish ecocide the 5th crime of peace, public engagement via new institutionalism is one way to initiate global governance to protect the global commons for future sustainability. First and foremost establishing ecocide as a crime is a way to establish peace between all nations to avoid wars based on resource depletion and utilize established theories and cornerstone laws to protect Earth.

Ecophagy

Ecophagy is a term coined by Robert Freitas that means the literal consumption of an ecosystem. Freitas used the term to describe a scenario involving molecular nanotechnology gone awry. In this situation (called the grey goo scenario) out of control self replicating nanorobots consume entire ecosystem, resulting in global ecophagy. However, the word �ecophagy� is now applied more generally in reference to any event – nuclear war, the spread of monoculture, massive species extinction -that might fundamentally alter the planet. The environmentalists believe that the current human trajectory puts us on a path that will eventually lead to ecophagy.

Carbon Credit

The concept of Carbon Credits came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of the need for pollution control. In fact Carbon Credit trading is an innovative method of controlling emission using the free market. Carbon credits were one of the outcomes of the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement between 169 countries of the world. The Kyoto Protocol created legally binding emission targets for the developing nations. To meet these targets, nations must limit CO2 emissions. It was enforced on February, 2005.

Carbon Credit is a tradable permit scheme. It is a simple, non-compulsory way to counteract the greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change and global warming. Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air.

The Carbon Credit is new currency and each carbon credit represents one tone of carbon dioxide either removed from the atmosphere or saved from being emitted.

Carbon credits are also called emission permit.

Carbon Credits are certificates awarded to countries that are successful in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone). Carbon Credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air such as carbon emitted by burning of fossil fuels. This means that carbon becomes a cost of business and is seen like other inputs such as raw materials or labor.

Carbon Credits are measured in tones of carbon dioxide, i.e. 1 credit = 1 tone of CO2.

Written by princy

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