Important Indus Valley Sites

Harappa

  • Harappa was located on the banks of river Ravi in the Montogomery district of west Punjab.
  • It was excavated by Dayaram Sahani in 1921.
  • It is called the ‘city of granaries’. (12 granaries in a row were found there.).
  • ‘H’ type of cemetery was found outside the citadel, suggesting the presence of a foreign race.
  • It was called the city of thousand sacrifices (Hariyupia) in the Rig Veda. e same Veda says that it was destroyed by Lord Indra.

Mohenjodaro

  • Mohenjodaro was situated on the banks of Indus in Larkana district of Sindh province.
  • It was excavated by R.D. Banerjee.
  • It is the largest Indus Valley site, most populated and a model site for all other sites.
  • The civil constructions in the site were a swimming pool like structure, the Great Bath the Great Granary, a temple like structure and an assembly hall.
  • A piece of cloth, a scale for measuring distance, a seal of Pashupati, a bronze image of a dancing girl, an image of priest made of steatite are some of the other relics were found.
  • Pashupati in this image is in deep meditative postures in three faces, two horns, surrounded by four animals, a bualo, tiger, elephant and rhino in four dierent directions with two deer at his feet. It is the rst representation of Lord Shiva.
  • The city was ooded as many as seven times.
  • The ruins of Mohenjodaro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in the year 1980.

Chanhudaro

  • Chanhudaro was located on the banks of river Indus in Sindh province excavated by M. J. Majumdar.
  • This was the only site without a citadel.
  • An inkpot meant for storing the writing ink was found here.
  • It was a major centre for bead making.
  • It was flooded thrice.

Kalibangan

  • Kalibangan was located on the banks of river Ghaggar in Rajasthan and excavated by the ASI.
  • Experienced both the stages of development, viz, Proto and Harappan phase.
  • Remains of bathrooms and toilets are its unique aspects.
  • The biggest unit of land in prehistoric world meant for extensive cultivation was found here.
  • Fire altars suggesting the worship of Agni were found here in a large number.

Banawali

  • Banawali was located on the banks of river Saraswati in Haryana. It is notable for extensive cultivation of barley.

Lothal

  • Lothal was located on the banks of Cambay (Gujarat).
  • An articial naval dockyard, houses with side entrances and eastern entrance for the city are unique aspects of Lothal.
  • The people of Lothal were the first to cultivate rice around the year 1800 B.C.

Surkotada

  • Definite evidence of the knowledge and the use of the horse by the IVC people was found in the form of a horse’s skeleton.

Rangpur

Rangpur was another site where rice was cultivated

Dholavira

  • Dholavira was the most recent site to be discovered, in the year 1992.
  • It is biggest IVC site within the boundaries of present-day India.
  • The first and earliest stadium of pre-historic times was found here.
  • The largest inscription with 10 pictographs in a single sentence was found here.

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