Important Indus Valley Sites
- Harappa was located on the banks of river Ravi in the Montogomery district of west Punjab.
- It was excavated by Dayaram Sahani in 1921.
- It is called the ‘city of granaries’. (12 granaries in a row were found there.).
- ‘H’ type of cemetery was found outside the citadel, suggesting the presence of a foreign race.
- It was called the city of thousand sacrifices (Hariyupia) in the Rig Veda. e same Veda says that it was destroyed by Lord Indra.
- Mohenjodaro was situated on the banks of Indus in Larkana district of Sindh province.
- It was excavated by R.D. Banerjee.
- It is the largest Indus Valley site, most populated and a model site for all other sites.
- The civil constructions in the site were a swimming pool like structure, the Great Bath the Great Granary, a temple like structure and an assembly hall.
- A piece of cloth, a scale for measuring distance, a seal of Pashupati, a bronze image of a dancing girl, an image of priest made of steatite are some of the other relics were found.
- Pashupati in this image is in deep meditative postures in three faces, two horns, surrounded by four animals, a bualo, tiger, elephant and rhino in four dierent directions with two deer at his feet. It is the rst representation of Lord Shiva.
- The city was ooded as many as seven times.
- The ruins of Mohenjodaro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in the year 1980.
- Chanhudaro was located on the banks of river Indus in Sindh province excavated by M. J. Majumdar.
- This was the only site without a citadel.
- An inkpot meant for storing the writing ink was found here.
- It was a major centre for bead making.
- It was flooded thrice.
- Kalibangan was located on the banks of river Ghaggar in Rajasthan and excavated by the ASI.
- Experienced both the stages of development, viz, Proto and Harappan phase.
- Remains of bathrooms and toilets are its unique aspects.
- The biggest unit of land in prehistoric world meant for extensive cultivation was found here.
- Fire altars suggesting the worship of Agni were found here in a large number.
- Banawali was located on the banks of river Saraswati in Haryana. It is notable for extensive cultivation of barley.
- Lothal was located on the banks of Cambay (Gujarat).
- An articial naval dockyard, houses with side entrances and eastern entrance for the city are unique aspects of Lothal.
- The people of Lothal were the first to cultivate rice around the year 1800 B.C.
- Definite evidence of the knowledge and the use of the horse by the IVC people was found in the form of a horse’s skeleton.
Rangpur was another site where rice was cultivated
- Dholavira was the most recent site to be discovered, in the year 1992.
- It is biggest IVC site within the boundaries of present-day India.
- The first and earliest stadium of pre-historic times was found here.
- The largest inscription with 10 pictographs in a single sentence was found here.