Major Thermal Power Stations in India
Non-Conventional Energy Sources
Being a tropical country, India is lucky to receive abundant sunlight in all parts except in the northern hilly region. Solar energy can be used for cooking, water-heating, space-heating, etc. The estimated potential of solar power is 50 MW/sq.km. Over 6 lakh solar cookers were used in as on 31.03.2010. Solar photovoltics after instantaneous conversion of solar energy into electricity without any pollution. Under solar photovoltaic demonstration programme, over 1,82,200 solar photovoltaic street lights community lighting/TV systems, 7334 solar photovoltaic water pumping systems, 7,33,245 domestic lighting units and 1,294 battery charging units have been installed throughout the country.
Development activities relating to cold storage unit and five kilowatt power plant, both based on geothermal energy at Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh) are in full progress. Pilot Cold Storage Plant at Manikaran has shown positive results. A potential of 4-5 MW has been estimated in Puga Valley of Ladakh. Plan for harnessing geothermal energy at Tatapani in Chhattisgarh has also been alized.
Wind Energy is being harnessed in Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra. India has wind energy potential of about 45,195 megawatt. Efforts are being made to develop wind generators, wind mills and battery charging systems. An aggregate capacity of 14155 megawatt has been installed upto March 2010. About eleven crore units of electricity have been fed top respective state grids. Asia’s largest windform of
10 megawatt has been commissioned at Khambhat in Gujarat. About 2,900 wind pumps have been installed for drinking water and irrigation.
India’Statewise Wind Energy
|State||Total Potential||Technical Potential|
Biogas is the most important component of renewable energy in rural areas. As a by-product, biogas plant produces enriched fertilizer. The use of biogas improves sanitation and provides smokeless and best cooking fuel. It can also be used for lighting and power generation. Under the National Programme on Biogas Development, 44.04 lakh family biogas plants have been installed upto 31 March, 2010 producing gas equivalent to saving of over 80 lakh tonnes of fuel wood. Besides, they are generating manure above 211 lakh tons. Similarly, 820 institutional/community biogas plants have been installed for providing energy for cooking, lighting, etc. for village community as a whole.
GRID-INTERACTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN. MW)
|Small Hydro Power||171.40||2803.70|
|Biomass Power & G||101.60||1365.40|
|Waste to Power||10.50||106.60|
|(CAPACITIES IN MW)|
|Waste to energy||17.10||132.70|
|Bomass (non-bagasse) Congeneration||60.70||531.30|
|Water mills/micro hydel||1.60||13.21|
|Bio-gas based energy system||0.55||3.77|
OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
|Family Biogas Plants (Numbers in lakh)||0.60||47.40|
|Solar Water heating-Coll. Area (million m2)||1.10||8.10|
Source: India 2015; A Reference Manual
It is estimated that India possesses 8000-9000 MW of tidal energy potential. The Gulf of Khambhat is the best suited area with about 7000 MW potential of tidal energy. This is followed by Gulf of Kachchh (1000 MW) and Sunderbans (100 MW). A 900 MW tidal power plant is proposed to be set up in the Gulf of Kachchh at the cost of Rs. 4,000 crore.
Wave energy potential in India is estimated about 40,000 MW. Coastal areas can get special benefit from this energy. One wave energy power plant of 150 KW (maximum) has been installed at Vzhinjam near uvananthapuram. Another one MW wave energy plant is being set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
India’s ocean thermal energy is estimated at 50,000 MW. The first ever plant for ocean thermal energy conversion with a capacity of 100 MW is proposed to be set up other coast of Tamil Nadu.
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