Drugs, Pharmaceutical and Forest Based Industries

This industry has made rapid progress aer independe nce. Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL), incoporated on April 5,1961, has plants located at Rishikesh (Uttarakhand), Chennai (T.N.), Gurgaon (Haryana), Hyderabad (A.P.), and Muzaarpur (Bihar). e Hindusthan Antibiotics Ltd. at Pimpri (Pune) produces penicillin, streptomycin and Vitamin C. The Hindusthan Organic Chemicals Ltd. has its plants at Rosayani (Maharashtra), Kochi (Kerala) and Hyderabad Telanagana.

Important private sector are Ranbaxy Laboratories, Dr. Reddy Laboratories, Cipla, Nicholas, Zyduss Cadila, Ciba, Surbhori, Hoechst, Alembic, Glaxo, Unichem, P, Chemo Pharma and Warner Hindustan.

Pesticides

Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides and rodenticides. Their use is increasing in agricultural and public health. At present, more than 125 units are engaged in the manufacture of technical grade pesticides and over 500 units are making pesticides formulations. The Hindustan Insecticide Ltd. (HIL) is a public sector undertaking engaged in manufacturing of insecticides. It has three units, viz., Udyogmandal (Kerala), Rasayani (Maharashtra) and Delhi. Its subsidiary company, Southern Pesticide Corporation (SPC) has a factory at Kovur. The Hindustan Insecticide Ltd. Produces BHC, DDT, Malathion and Endosulfan which are widely used in India.

Glass Industry

Glass has been manufactured and used in India since time immemorial. The present day glass industry is divided into two categories: i) cottage industry and ii) factory industry. Cottage industry is spread throughout India. However Firozabad in Uttar Pradesh and Belgaum in Karnataka are the main centres.

Factory industry is located at the following places:

  • Uttar Pradesh: Firozabad, Bahjoi, Naini, Shikohabad, Hathras, Allahabad, Jaunpur
  • West Bengal: Kolkata, Hoora, Raniganj, Belgharia, Belur, Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur, Asansol
  • Maharashtra: Mumbai, Talegaon (Pune), Satara, Nagpur and Kolhapur

The other producers are Gujarat (Bharuch, Vadodara, Morvi and Panchmahal), Tamil Nadu (Salem, Chennai, Coimbatore), Bihar (Kandra, Bhawaninagar, Patna), Jharkhand (Jamshedpur, Kahalgaon), Rajasthan (Dhaulpur and Jaipur), Haryana (Ambala and Faridabad), Telanagana (Warrangal and Hyderabad), Delhi (Shahdara), Punjab (Amritsar), Kerala (Alwaye), Orissa (Barang, Cuttak), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Gondia), Assam (Guwahati) and Karnataka (Bengaluru).

Leather and Leather Goods

India has the largest number of livestock in the world and has an old tradition of manufacturing leather and leather goods. Two major sectors of this industry are tanning and goods manufacturing.

Tanning is done at Kanpur, Chennai and Kolkata which are the major centres for tanning. The other important tanning centres are Agra, Bengaluru, Belgaum, Bhopal, Mokameh (Bihar), Phulbani (Odisha), Sherbaug (Gujarat), Kapurthala (Punjab), Pallavaram, Trichirapalli, Perambur, Eluru, etc. Besides there are about 300 small tanneries.

Leather goods include a large variety such as footwear, suitcases, bags and portfolios, ladies handbags, belts and several industrial accessories. However, footwear is the most important of all the leather goods and far excels others. The Indian footwear industry can be divided into thr ee segments (i) large organised units, (ii) small scale sector and (iii) tiny cottage industry. Under large units come Bata, Carona and Tata, small scale units include Liberty, Wasan, Aero, Bajaj, Tej and Lakhani. The tiny cottage units contribute the bulk of production and offer their products to the domestic market. The main centres of producing leather shoes,

shoe uppers and leather sandals are Chennai, Ranipet, Ambur, Vaniambadi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra, Kolhapur, Delhi, Jalandhar, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Batanagar, Faridabad and Jaipur.

Forest Based Industries

The industries which use forest products as raw materials are called forest based industries. Paper, match, lac, sports goods, plywood, etc. are such industries.

Paper Industry

The beginning of modern paper industry goes back to 1816 when a factory was set up near Chennai. This venture proved abortive. Another paper mill was set up in 1832 at Serampore on the bank of Hugli in West Bengal. This venture also failed and the first successful eort was made in 1870 with the setting up of the Royal Bengal Paper mills at Ballyganj near Kolkata. This is the principal seat of paper industry even today. The distribution of paper industry in India is as follows:

  • Maharashtra: Ballarpur has the largest paper mill. Sangli, Kalyan, Mumbai, Pune, Balarshah, Pimpri, Nagpur, Bhiwandi, Nandurbar, Tumur, Khopoli, Kamptee, Vikroli, Chinchwad, etc. are other major producers
  • Andhra Pradesh: Rajahmundry, Sirpur (Kagaznagar), Tirupati, Kurnool, Srikakulum, Pallancheru, Nallore, Bhadrachalam, Kakinada, Apidik, Bodhan, etc
  • Gujarat: Rajkot, Vadodara, Surat, Barjod, Bilmoria, Navasari, Songarh, Ahmedabad, Vapi, Bharuch, Dijandranagar, Limbdi, Gondal, Udvada and Bavla
  • Uttar Pradesh: Saharanpur, Lalkuan, Meerut, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Pipraich, Muzaarnag ar, Allahabad (Naini), Varanasi, Kalpi, Budaun and Mainpuri
  • West Bengal: Titagarh, Kankinara, Raniganj, Bansberia, Sheoraphuli, Chandrabati, Triveni, Naihati, Kolkata and Baranagore are some of the important centres of paper manufacturing in West Bengal
  • Madhya Pradesh: Bhopal, Amlai (Shahdol), Ratlam, Rajgarh, Vidisha, Abdullaganj, Rewa and Indore. Nepanagar is the birthplace of newsprint industry and is still an important centre of newsprint manufacturing in India
  • Odisha: Brijrajnagar, Cehnwer and Raygoda
  • Tamil Nadu: Cheranmahadevi, Pallipalayam, Udmalpet, Chennai, Salem, Amravathinagar, Pahanasam, Madurai
  • Karnataka: Bhdravati, Dandoli, Nandangaud, Belagola, Munirabad, Harihar, Mundyud, Bangalore, Mandya, Ramnagaram and Krishnarajsagar
  • Punjab: (Hoshiarpur, Sangrur, Sailakhurd and Rajpura), Assam (Guwahati, Cachar and Lumding), Haryana (Yamunanagar, Faridabad, Dharuhera and Jagadhari), Bihar (Dharbhanga, Samastipur, Baruni), Himachal Pradesh (Borokkwala and Kala Amb), Kerala (Punalur, Erunakulam, Mavoor, Rayanpuram and Kozhikode), Rajasthan (Kota), Meghalaya (Shillong), Nagaland (Mokekchong)

Newsprint

The production of newsprint in India commenced with the establishment of National Newsprint and Paper Mills known as NEPA in 1955 at Nepanagar in Hoshangabad district of M.P. Mysore paper mills at Shimoga (Karnataka), e Hindustan Newsprint at Vellore (Kerala), Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Paper Ltd. at Pugalur in Tiruchirapalli are the main producers.

Match Industry

The Western India Match Company (WIMCO) has set up five factories at Bareilly (U.P.), Kolkata, Chennai, Ambarnath (Mumbai) and Dhubri (Assam). These five factories of WIMCO along with Assam Match Co. (AMCO.) produce 65 per cent of match in India. The remaining 35 per cent match is produced by decentralised small scale units and cottage industry. There are about one thousand small scale units manufacturing match.

Lac Industry

Major part of the production comes from the Chota Nagpur plateau which accounts for about 50 per cent of the total production. e remaining 50 per cent is produced by adjoining areas in West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.

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