Iron and Steel Industry

Vegetable oil is an important item of Indian food as it is the major source of fat. Vegetable oil industry of India can be divided into three broad groups depending upon the technology used. Ghani is the main technology for expelling oil in the villages. Different oil seeds are used in different areas. For example, groundnut is used in Gujarat, coconut in Kerala and mustard seed in Uttar Pradesh.

Intermediate Technology is used by factories located in towns. Oil seeds used are region specific Sophisticated Technology is used by large mills located in big cities and are oriented towards bigger market. They also procure oil seeds from a much larger area.

Although vegetable oil industry is developed throughout India, Maharashtra has the largest number of vanaspati producing units. Other important vanaspati producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Chennai, Akola, Modinagar, Kanpur, Ghaziabad, Indore and Vadodara are the main centres of vegetable oil industry.

Metallurgical Industries

Industries using metal as the basic raw material are known as metallurgical industries. These include iron and steel, aluminium, copper smelting, lead and zinc smelting, alloy, ferro-manganese, ferro-silicon, ferro-chrome, tungsten and a host of other industries.

Iron and Steel Industry

This industry is known as the basic industry as all other industries depend on this industry. It constitutes the backbone of industrial development. e modern industry began in 1875 with the establishment of Bengal Iron Works Company at Kulti in West Bengal. But the real beginning of modern iron and steel industry was made in 1907 only when Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was set up at Jamshedpur (Sakchi at that time). The Indian Iron and Steel Company (II SCO) was set up in 1919 at Burnpur followed by the setting up of Mysore Steel Works at Bhadravati (now Visvesvarayya Iron and Steel Works) in 1923. Iron and steel industry witnessed rapid growth after independence. During the Second Five-Year Plan, three integrated steel projects were started at Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur. Bokaro steel plant was set up later on. Iron and steel plants have also been set up at Vishakhapatnam (the only steel plant located at the sea port and also using most sophisticated technology). Salem in Tamil Nadu, Vijaynagar in Karnataka, Paradeep and Kalinganagar in Odisha are other centres.

Location of Iron and Steel Industry

Iron and steel industry mainly depends upon weight losing heavy raw materials like coal, iron ore, manganese, dolomite etc. Therefore, this industry develops only in those areas where its raw materials (especially coal and iron ore) are available in shifting quality.

Cheap and efficient transport and ready market are other factors. Following table gives a brief summary of the major iron and steel plants in India.


Name Location Raw Materials Additional Advantages
Tata Iron and Steel Jamshedpur Iron Ore: Noamandi mine in Water from Subarnarekha
Company (TISCO) (Jharkhand), on the Singhbhum and Gurumahisani cheap labour from
(First plant set up in Subarnarekha river mines of Mayurbhanj Jharkhand, Bihar and
1907)   Coal: Jharia and Raniganj Odisha, railway service
    Manganese: Joda mines of for Kolkata, Mumbai and
    Kendujhar Chennai
    Limestone and Dolomite:  
    Sundargarh (Odisha)  
Indian Iron and Kulti, Hirapur and Iron Ore: Singhbhum and Cheap labour from the
Steel Company Burnpur (West Mayurbhanj neighbouring areas and
(IISCO) Bengal) Coal: Jharia and Damodar Valley rail connection with
    Corporation Kolkata
    Manganese: Balaghat (M.P.)  


      Indian and World Geography 147
    Limestone and Dolomite:  
    Sundergarh, Gangpur and  
    Paraghat (Odisha)  
Visveswariya Iron On the leank of Iron Ore: Kemangundi mines in Bhadravati valley is 13
& Steel Ltd river Bhadravati in Chikmaglur district km wide and enough land
  Shimoga district Hydroelectric Power: Sharavati is available. It lies away
  of Karnataka Power Project from coal producing
    Limestone: Bundiguda areas and use
    Manganese: Shimoga and hydroelectricity
Bhilai Steel Plant Durg district of Iron Ore: Durg, Chandrapur and Korba thermal power
(with collaboration Chhattisgarh Bastar station is the main source
of the erstwhile   Coal: Korba, Kargali, Bokaro of power; cheap labour
U.S.S.R.)   and Jharia from neighbouring areas,
    Limestone: Nandini Connected with Kolkata-
    Manganese: Bhandara and Nagpur railway line.
    Dolomite: Bilaspur  
Rourkela Steel Plant Rourkela in Iron Ore: Kiriburu, Sundargarh Hydroelectricity from
(with German Sundargarh district and Kendujhar districts Hirakund Power Project
collaboration) of Odisha Coal: Jharia and Talcher and water from Brahamni
    Manganese: Barajmda river. Located on Nagpur-
    Limestone: Noamundi Kolkata railway line.
    Birmitrapur Kolkata provides port
    Dolomite: Baradwar facilities.
Durgapur Steel Plant Durgapur in Iron Ore: Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj Cheap labour from the
(with the help of Bardhaman district and Kendujhar surrounding areas,
U.K.) of West Bengal Coal: Jharia and Raniganj hydroelectricity from
    Manganese: Kendujhar Damodar Valley Corpo-
    Limestone and: Birmitrapur ration, water from
    Dolomite Durgapur Barrage.
        Kolkata-Asansol railway
Bokaro (with Near the conuence Iron Ore: Kiriburu, Bonaingarh Hydroelectricity from
collaboration of of Bokaro and Noamundi. Damodar Valley
the erstwhile Damodar rivers in Coal: Jharia and Bokaro Corporation and water
U.S.S.R. Hazaribagh district Limestone: Palamau from Damodar river
  of Jharkhand Manganese: Noamundi Kolkata provides port
Vishakhapatnam Vishakhapatnam Iron Ore: Bailadila in India’s only steel plant
Steel Plant (Andhra Pradesh) Chhattisgarh located on sea port. Most
    Coal: Damodar Valley sophisticated
    Metallurgical coal is imported technology.
    from Australia Australian coal to be
    Limestone: Chhattisgarh replaced by gas from
    Dolomite: M.P. and Odisha Krishna-Godavari basin
    and Odisha  
    Manganese: Odisha  


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