This is another type of farming in which livestock, especially poultry and cattle rearing, is done in stalls and pens; fed on manufactured foodstuff and carefully supervised against diseases. Like other forms of commercial farming, it requires heavy capital investment for building, machinery, veterinary services as well as for heating and lighting. Breed selection and scientific breeding are two important features of this agriculture.
Types of Farming according to Farming Organisation
Types of farming can also be categorised on the basis of farming organisation. It depends upon the way in which farmers own their farms and the policies of the government.
1. Co-operative Farming
Co-operative farming is a system of farming in which a group of farmers voluntarily pool their land and resources and form co-operative society. Co-operative societies help the farmers in procuring important inputs, sell the farm products at the most profitable rates and processing the quality pro ducts at cheaper rates.
Co-operative farming is being successfully practised in some of the European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc. In Denmark, the movement has been so successful that practically every farmer is a member of a co-operative.
2. Collective Farming
Collective farming is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour. It was adopted in the erstwhile U.S.S.R. after the 1917 revolution. A special model of Kolkhoz was introduced to improve upon the inefficiency of the previous methods of agriculture and to boost agricultural production. A collective farm or Kolkhoz is a voluntary productive co-operative union based on social ownership of means of production and on collective labour which excludes exploitation of man by man. Thus, the farmers pool all their resources like land, livestock and labour in collective farming. However, they are allowed to retain a small piece of land to grow crops for their daily needs.
The government sets the yearly target for the farmers and the produce is sold to state at fixed prices. The excess produce is distributed among the members or it is sold in the market. The farmers have to pay taxes on the farm produces, hired machinery etc. Members are paid according to the nature of the work allotted to them by the farm management. Exceptional work is rewarded in cash or kind. This farming has been adopted by some other socialist countries in addition to Russia. However, there have been some modifications in this farming after the collapse of the former U.S.S.R.
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