Population Problems of Developing Countries
Most of the developing countries are located in Africa and Asia and support about 80 percent of the world’s population. These countries face a variety of problems and some of the major problems are briefly described as under:
Rapid Growth of Population
A large number of developing countries are facing the problem of high growth rate of population due to high birth rate and low death rate. Such a situation is created by increasing availability of medical services, lack of education, poverty as well as social and religious superstitions.
There is large scale unemployment in most of the developing countries because the economies of these countries are largely based on primary activities like agriculture and secondary (manufacturing) and literacy activities are relatively less developed. Primary activities are not able to provide employment to a large number of unskilled and semi-skilled persons living in rural areas. Even the urban places are facing the problem of large scale unemployment due to migration of people from rural to urban areas. Even the educated and skilled technocrats often fail to get suitable jobs.
Poverty and Malnutrition
Over population results in lower per capita assets and lead to wide spread poverty. Due to poverty, people do not get enough food to eat and many people suffer from malnutrition. Poverty and malnutrition cause many health problems.
Most of the developed countries depend on agriculture based on primitive practices and suffer from backward economy. Farmers are not able to use modern and efficient methods of farming due to lack of technology and financial resources. Pressure on agricultural resources further increases due to poor in industrial growth.
It is an other major problem faced by the developing countries. Although literacy is increasing yet the total number of illiterate adults is very large. Widespread illiteracy leads to irrational ideas and religious superstitions including tendency to have larger family. Education can bring about considerable changes with respect to attitude of the people towards age of marriage, size of family and birth of child.
Some of the developing countries have population which is much less than the population that can be supported by their natural resources. Such countries are said to be under populated countries. The population problems of these countries are different from those of the overpopulated or densely populated countries. e economic growth in these countries is rather slow due to shortage of manpower because natural resources cannot be properly exploited under such circumstances. Brazil and Argentina in South America, Zaire and other adjoining countries of Central Africa and several countries of South-West, Central and South-East Asia are endowed with plenty of natural resources but are not well developed due to lack of population.