Technical Education

The Eleventh Plan envisages that intake of technical education institutions grows at 15 per cent annually, to meet the skilled human resource needs of the growing economy. The Eleventh Plan outlay for Technical Education is Rs.26,300 crore and the allocation for the first four years Rs. 15,053 crore. The anticipated expenditure for the first three years is Rs.7,829 crore.

Review of the Eleventh Plan

As on 30 June , 2009 there were 7,272 technical institutions including management institutions with an intake of 14.10 lakh for degree and 2,324 diploma level institutions with a total enrolment of 5.08 lakh students, thereby making an aggregate intake of 19.18 lakh students. Thus, the total technical education enrolment at 19.18 lakh accounts for only 9.48 per cent of total higher education enrolments. This is not adequate for a country of continental size. Another dimension is the skewed distribution of the existing technical institutions. While the States of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have a deficit of engineering colleges, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra have large concentration of private institutions. The Government has expanded the students� intake both through creation of new institutions as well as by augmenting the intake by 54 per cent to provide OBC reservation.

The number of AICTE approved technical institutions, which was 5,269 at the beginning of the Eleventh Plan, has increased to 9,596 as on June 2009. These comprise 2,872��� engineering and technology colleges, 1,659 polytechnics, 1,080 institutions for degree and 575 institutions for diploma in Pharmacy, 179 schools for degree as well as diploma in Hotel Management, 16 institutions for Art and Craft and 106 institutions for Architecture. For postgraduate courses, there are 1,940 educational institutions for MBA/ PGDM and 1,169 for MCA. e public sector produces only a small proportion of the engineering and management graduates. Within the public sector, the State technical institutions account for a significant proportion, but these have not seen much investment in the current expansion process which is a matter of concern.

The All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) has permitted second shifts in certain engineering colleges and polytechnics to augment the intake capacity. National Board of Accreditation (NBA) has revised the criteria for accreditation of institutes to bring them at par with international parameters.

The intake of students at undergraduate level in existing seven IITs at Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Chennai, Guwahati and Roorkee has increased from 4,977 in 2008-09 to 5,464 in 2009-10. The Government has approved set ting up of eight new IITs in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Orissa, Punjab, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. All the eight new IITs have started functioning.

The total intake of the existing seven Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) has increased by 17 per cent from 1,426 in 2007-08 to 2,100 in 2009-10. The RGIIM, Shillong (Meghalaya) has commenced its academic session from 2008-09 with an intake of 64 students. The Government has approved the setting up of new IIMs in the States of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, and Rajasthan. In the first phase, four IIMs at Tamil Nadu (Tiruchirappalli), Jharkhand (Ranchi), Chhattisgarh (Raipur), and Haryana (Rohtak) were to be set up in the 2009-10, while IIMs at Uttarakhand and Rajasthan will be set up in 2010-11. The intake capacity per IIM is slated to increase from 140 students in the postgraduate programme (PGP) course to 560 students per year by the end of the Eleventh Plan. The Bhargava Committee set up by MHRD reviewed the functioning of the IIMs and has made various recommendations in September 2008, for expansion of intake capacity and PhD fellowships.

Sixth All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE)

Major findings:

  • Increase in overall enrolment from 27.5 million in 2010-11 to 33.3 million in 2014-15.
  • Improvement in Gross Enrolment Ratio which is a ratio of enrolment in higher education to population in the eligible age group (18-23) years from 19.4% on 2010-11 to 23.6% in 2014-15.
  • Gender Parity Index (GPI), a ratio of proportional representation of female and male, has marginally improved from 0.86 to 0.93 to the corresponding period.
  • Number of institutions of higher education listed on AISHE portal has also increased significantly � universities from 621 to 757 and colleges from 32, 974 to 38,056 during the same period.
  • Asia University Rankings 2016: India has emerged as the leading South Asian country in the Times Higher Education (THE) Asia University Rankings 2016, with 16 institutions in top 200.
  • Led by the Indian Institute of Science in the 27th place, there are eight universities/institutions in the top 100. Apart from IIS, other institutions are IIT Bombay (43rd), IIT Kharagpur (51st), IIT Delhi (60th), IIT Madras (62nd), IIT Roorkee (65th), IIT Guwahati (80th), Jadavpur University (84th).

At present, India�s health care system consists of a mix of public and private sector providers of health services. The National Health Policy envisages a three tier structure comprising the primary, secondary and tertiary health care facilities to bring health care services within the reach of the people. The primary tier is designed to have three types of health care institutions, namely, a Sub-Centre (SC) for a population of 3000-5000, a Primary Health Centre (PHC) for 20000 to 30000 people and a Community Health Centre (CHC) as referral center for every four PHCs covering a population of 80,000 to 1.2 lakh. Networks of health care facilities at the primary, secondary and tertiary level, run mainly by State Governments, provide free or very low cost medical services. There is also an extensive private health care sector, covering the entire spectrum from individual doctors and their clinics, to general hospitals and super speciality hospitals.

As on 31st March, 2015, there were 153655 Sub Centers, 25308 Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and 5396 Community Health Centers (CHCs) functioning in the country. 1022 Sub Divisional/ Sub District Hospital and 763 District Hospitals were functioning on 31st March, 2015.

Written by princy

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